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Takagi H.,National Institute of Infectious Diseases
Kansenshōgaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysis causes oxidative destruction dependent on electrons excited by < or = 400 nm ultraviolet (UV) rays. Many studies have covered the destruction of organics and bacteria and bacteriophage inactivation by photocatalysis. We studied the inactivation by new nonwoven siliconized titanium dioxide fabric of the feline calicivirus F9 (FCV-F9), human adenovirus GB (HAdv3-GB), and influenza A and B virus (A/New Caledonia, B/Shandong, and 5 clinical strains). We spotted 10 microL of viral suspensions containing infectious 5 log10 50% tissue culture doses (TCID50) onto 1 cm2 pieces of TiO2-coated nonwoven control fabric treated or not treated with UV light (lambda(max), 365 nm, 1,100-1,300 microW/cm2). We then measured the virus titers of 50 microL of viral suspension recovered from these fabrics. FCV-F9 and HAdv3-GB infectivity titers were reduced by over 3.5 log10 TCID50 after 30 min of irradiation, but influenza viral titer was reduced to where it was undetectable even without UV irradiation. Comparing individual viral titer reduction due to nonwoven fabric contact without UV irradiation exposure, showed that FCV-F9 and HAdv3-GB titer infectivity was not reduced. In contrast, influenza A and B titer infectivity was reduced to 2 log10 TCID50 after 5 min of contact with the nonwoven fabric and to 3 log10 TCID50 after 30 min of contact. Titers of 6 of 7 influenza A and B strains were reduced by over 4 log10 TCID50 within 30 min. Siliconized TiO2-coated nonwoven fabric thus efficiently inactivated FCV-F9 and HAdV-GB and absorbed influenza viruses. Source

Poliovirus (PV) is a small non-enveloped virus belonging to the family Picornaviridae, and is the causative agent of poliomyelitis. With established vaccines, the global eradication program for poliomyelitis is ongoing by the World Health Organization since 1988. In the eradication program, antivirals are anticipated to have some roles in the endgame and post-eradication era of PV. During our search for potent anti-PV compounds, we identified candidate compounds that are associated with a common resistance mutation in viral protein 3A similar to enviroxime (designated as enviroxime-like compounds). Recently, PIK93, an inhibitor of host phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III beta (PI4KB), was identified as a potent anti-enterovirus compound (Hsu et al., Cell 141:799-811). We found that PIK93 is an enviroxime-like compound, and showed that T-00127-HEV1, which is a novel enviroxime-like compound identified in high-throughput screening, is a specific PI4KB inhibitor. We also showed that PI4KB is an enterovirus-specific host factor required for its viral RNA replication. Analysis of anti-enterovirus compounds would unravel novel host factors that could serve as promising antiviral targets of prophylaxis and therapy of the infection. Source

Ciapponi A.,Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy IECS | Bardach A.,Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy IECS | Glujovsky D.,Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy IECS | Gibbons L.,Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy IECS | Picconi M.A.,National Institute of Infectious Diseases

Background: Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C), showing some of the highest incidence and mortality rates worldwide. Information on HPV type distribution in high-grade cervical lesions (HSIL) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial to predict the future impact of HPV16/18 vaccines and screening programmes, and to establish an appropriate post-vaccinal virologic surveillance. The aim was to assess the prevalence of HPV types in HSIL and ICC in studies in LA&C. Methods and Findings: We performed a systematic review, following the MOOSE guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Inclusion criteria were at least ten cases of HSIL/ICC, and HPV-type elicitation. The search, without language restrictions, was performed in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, LILACS from inception date to December 2009, proceedings, reference lists and consulting experts. A meta-analysis was performed using arc-sine transformations to stabilize the variance of simple proportions. Seventy-nine studies from 18 countries were identified, including 2446 cases of HSIL and 5540 of ICC. Overall, 46.5% of HSIL cases harbored HPV 16 and 8.9% HPV18; in ICC, 53.2% of cases harbored HPV 16 and13.2% HPV 18. The next five most common types, in decreasing frequency, were HPV 31, 58, 33, 45, and 52. Study's limitations comprise the cross-sectional design of most included studies and their inherent risk of bias, the lack of representativeness, and variations in the HPV type-specific sensitivity of different PCR protocols. Conclusions: This study is the broadest summary of HPV type distribution in HSIL and ICC in LA&C to date. These data are essential for local decision makers regarding HPV screening and vaccination policies. Continued HPV surveillance would be useful, to assess the potential for changing type-specific HPV prevalence in the post-vaccination era in Latin America. © 2011 Ciapponi et al. Source

Sugawara T.,National Institute of Infectious Diseases
Kansenshōgaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases

We examined the relationship between syndromic surveillance and laboratory confirmation, at an early stage of an outbreak of hand foot and mouth disease and RS virus infection. We observed the epidemiological situation from a surveillance system at a day care facility for young children in Tokyo from one week before onset of the indicator until one month thereafter. For laboratory diagnosis, we collected a rectal swab or a nasal swab from one patient in the early stage of the outbreak. A total of 20 patients, comprising 12 1-year-old, 5 2-year-old and 3 3-year-old children, were found to have hand foot and mouth disease on August 1st, 2011. From a rectal swab from one HFMD patient, enterovirus genome was detected and identified as coxsackievirus type A6 (CA6) with PCR sequencing. The CA6 had 99% identity to CA6 (Genbank No AB663318) in the VP4 coding region. RS virus also was detected from a nasal swab. The establishment of a surveillance system at day care facilities for children can monitor infectious diseases among young children promptly. Laboratory confirmation, even though from only one patient as shown in this study, can provide critical information regarding the causative agent of the outbreak. This method is easy to conduct and could be used for activating appropriate countermeasures. We believe that the combination of the timeliness of a surveillance system at day care facility for children and the convenience of laboratory diagnosis of even one patient can detect the causative pathogen, and thus enable the activation of countermeasures before an outbreak become widespread. Source

Suzuki S.,National Institute of Infectious Diseases
Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine

In 2010, a three months survey of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae was conducted by Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. A total of 153 isolates were obtained through this survey and we performed PCR using the NDM-1 type, KPC type, IMP-1 type, IMP-2 type and VIM-2 type carbapenemase genes specific primers. Of 153 analyzed isolates, 72 (47.1%) were positive for IMP-1 type bla(IMP), and two isolates from two patients were positive for bla(NDM-1). None of those patients had traveled abroad. Two isolates from a single patient who had traveled and hospitalized in abroad were positive for bla(KPC). 77 (50.3%) isolates were all negative for those five carbapenemase genes. It was shown that IMP-1 type is the most predominant carbapenemase gene among Enterobacteriaceae in Japan. Source

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