Sundd M.,National Institute of Immunology
Biochemistry | Year: 2012
Ubiquitin interacts with numerous domains and motifs in its lifetime that vary in structure but bind the same hydrophobic patch. To identify the structural features of ubiquitin that make it an exceptional protein-protein interaction partner, we have studied the interaction of ubiquitin with the signal transducing adaptor molecule-1 ubiquitin interacting motif (UIM) using nuclear magnetic resonance. Our studies bring to light the role of the inherent backbone flexibility of ubiquitin in its interactions with a large array of binding partners, revealed from the changes in Cα chemical shifts, backbone dynamics, and hydrogen bond lengths upon UIM binding. The crystal structures of ubiquitin complexes lend further support to our findings, underscoring the importance of the unique and flexible hydrogen bond network within ubiquitin and simultaneously providing insights into the nature of the slow motions. Taken together, our studies provide an in-depth view of the molecular changes associated with ligand recognition by ubiquitin. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Mukhopadhyay A.,National Institute of Immunology
Cytotherapy | Year: 2013
Bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells are reported to have cellular plasticity, which provoked many investigators to use of these cells in the regeneration of nonhematopoietic tissues. However, adult stem cell plasticity contradicts our classic understanding on progressive restriction of the developmental potential of a cell type. Many alternate mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon; the working hypotheses for elucidating the cellular plasticity of BM-derived stem cells are on the basis of direct differentiation and/or fusion between donor and recipient cells. This review dissects the different outcomes of the investigations on liver regeneration, which were performed with the use of BM-derived stem cells in experimental animals, and reveals some critical factors to explain cellular plasticity. It has been hypothesized that the competent BM-derived stem/progenitor cells, under the influence of liver-regenerating cues, can directly differentiate into hepatic cells. This differentiation takes place as a result of genetic reprogramming, which may be possible in the chemically induced acute liver injury model or at the stage of fetal liver development. Cellular plasticity emerges as an important phenomenon in cell-based therapies for the treatment of many liver diseases in which tissue regeneration is necessary. © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy.
Basak S.,National Institute of Immunology |
Behar M.,University of California at San Diego |
Hoffmann A.,University of California at San Diego
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2012
Mathematical modeling has proved to be a critically important approach in the study of many complex networks and dynamic systems in physics, engineering, chemistry, and biology. The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) system consists of more than 50 proteins and protein complexes and is both a highly networked and dynamic system. To date, mathematical modeling has only addressed a small fraction of the molecular species and their regulation, but when employed in conjunction with experimental analysis has already led to important insights. Here, we provide a personal account of studying how the NF-κB signaling system functions using mathematical descriptions of the molecular mechanisms. We focus on the insights gained about some of the key regulatory components: the control of the steady state, the signaling dynamics, and signaling crosstalk. We also discuss the biological relevance of these regulatory systems properties. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Gupta S.K.,National Institute of Immunology
Journal of Reproductive Immunology | Year: 2015
In the last decade, scientific investigations pertaining to the role of zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins during fertilization in humans have led to new insights. This has been achieved using purified native/recombinant human zona proteins and transgenic mice expressing human ZP glycoproteins. The proposed model in mice of ZP glycoprotein-3 (ZP3) acting as primary sperm receptor and ZP glycoprotein-2 (ZP2) as secondary sperm receptor has been modified for sperm-egg binding in humans. ZP glycoprotein-1 (ZP1), ZP3, and ZP glycoprotein-4 (ZP4) have been shown to bind to the capacitated human sperm. ZP2 binds to the acrosome-reacted human spermatozoa. Further, the eggs obtained from transgenic mice expressing human ZP2 alone or in conjunction with other human instead of mouse zona proteins showed binding of human sperm, suggesting that ZP2 might also play a role in sperm-egg binding. This function has been mapped to a domain corresponding to amino acid residues 51-144 of ZP2. In contrast to mice, where ZP3 is the primary agonist for inducing the acrosome reaction, in humans, the acrosome reaction can be mediated by ZP1, ZP3, and ZP4. The effect of mutations in the genes encoding zona proteins on the ZP morphology and infertility has not been established. Further, the role of autoantibodies against ZP in women with 'unexplained infertility' leading to poor outcome of in vitro fertilization is currently controversial and needs further investigations. Understanding the role of ZP glycoproteins during human fertilization facilitates the development of new contraceptives and strategies to overcome the problem of infertility. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Indian Institute of Chemical Technology and National Institute Of Immunology | Date: 2014-04-11
The present invention in general relates Hemoglobin receptor or its part as a novel vaccine candidate against Leishmaniasis. Specifically, the present invention envisages HbR DNA for eliciting immune response in a mammal against Leishmaniasis. Additional aspect of the present invention is related to a vaccine composition for inducing immune response against Leishmaniasis in mammals. In a preferred aspect, the present invention relates to use of HbR-polypeptide as marker for diagnosis of