National Institute of Immunohaematology NIIH

Mumbai, India

National Institute of Immunohaematology NIIH

Mumbai, India
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Jacob S.,National Health Research Institute | Nayak S.,National Health Research Institute | Kakar R.,National Health Research Institute | Chaudhari U.K.,National Health Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Biology and Therapy | Year: 2016

Telomerase activation is one of the key mechanisms that allow cells to bypass replicative senescence. Telomerase activity is primarily regulated at the level of transcription of its catalytic unit- hTERT. Prostate cancer (PCa), akin to other cancers, is characterized by high telomerase activity. Existing data suggest that hTERT expression and telomerase activity are positively regulated by androgenic stimuli in androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC) cells. A part of the present study reaffirmed this by demonstrating a decline in the hTERT expression and telomerase activity on “loss of AR” in ADPC cells. The study further addressed 2 unresolved queries, i) whether AR-mediated signaling is of any relevance to hTERT expression in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and ii) whether this signaling involves EGR1. Our data suggest that AR-mediated signaling negatively regulates hTERT expression in CRPC cells. Incidental support for the possibility of EGR1 being a regulator of hTERT expression in PCa was provided by i) immunolocalization of hTERT and EGR1 proteins in the same cell type (secretory epithelium) of PCa and BPH tissues; ii) significantly (p< 0.001) higher levels of both these proteins in CRPC (PC3 and DU145), compared with ADPC (LNCaP) cells. A direct evidence for the role of EGR1 in hTERT expression was evident by a significant (p<0.0001) decrease in the hTERT transcript levels in the EGR1-silenced CRPC cells. Further, “gain of AR” led to a significant reduction in the levels of hTERT and EGR1 in CRPC cells. However, restoration of EGR1 levels prevented the decline in the hTERT transcript levels in these cells. Taken together, our data indicate that AR regulates the expression of EGR1, which in turn acts as a positive regulator of hTERT expression in CRPC cells. Thus, AR exerts an inhibitory effect on hTERT expression and telomerase activity by modulating EGR1 levels in CRPC cells. © 2016 National Research In Reproductive Health, Indian Council Of Medical Research.


PubMed | National Health Research Institute, d Biomedical Informatics Center, National Institute of Immunohaematology NIIH and c GS Medical College and KEM Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer biology & therapy | Year: 2016

Telomerase activation is one of the key mechanisms that allow cells to bypass replicative senescence. Telomerase activity is primarily regulated at the level of transcription of its catalytic unit- hTERT. Prostate cancer (PCa), akin to other cancers, is characterized by high telomerase activity. Existing data suggest that hTERT expression and telomerase activity are positively regulated by androgenic stimuli in androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC) cells. A part of the present study reaffirmed this by demonstrating a decline in the hTERT expression and telomerase activity on loss of AR in ADPC cells. The study further addressed 2 unresolved queries, i) whether AR-mediated signaling is of any relevance to hTERT expression in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and ii) whether this signaling involves EGR1. Our data suggest that AR-mediated signaling negatively regulates hTERT expression in CRPC cells. Incidental support for the possibility of EGR1 being a regulator of hTERT expression in PCa was provided by i) immunolocalization of hTERT and EGR1 proteins in the same cell type (secretory epithelium) of PCa and BPH tissues; ii) significantly (p< 0.001) higher levels of both these proteins in CRPC (PC3 and DU145), compared with ADPC (LNCaP) cells. A direct evidence for the role of EGR1 in hTERT expression was evident by a significant (p<0.0001) decrease in the hTERT transcript levels in the EGR1-silenced CRPC cells. Further, gain of AR led to a significant reduction in the levels of hTERT and EGR1 in CRPC cells. However, restoration of EGR1 levels prevented the decline in the hTERT transcript levels in these cells. Taken together, our data indicate that AR regulates the expression of EGR1, which in turn acts as a positive regulator of hTERT expression in CRPC cells. Thus, AR exerts an inhibitory effect on hTERT expression and telomerase activity by modulating EGR1 levels in CRPC cells.


Kawankar N.,National Institute of Immunohaematology NIIH | Korgaonkar S.,National Institute of Immunohaematology NIIH | Kerketta L.,National Institute of Immunohaematology NIIH | Madkaikar M.,National Institute of Immunohaematology NIIH | And 3 more authors.
Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers | Year: 2012

Chromosomal abnormalities are important in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The purpose of this study was to identify DNA copy number variations in karyotypically normal AML patients and their correlation with immunophenotypes. Conventional comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and immunophenotyping were performed in 46 untreated AML patients aged 7-68 years. Among the 86 Indian patients who had AML, 40 (46.5%) showed an abnormal karyotype and 46 (53.4%) showed no chromosome aberrations. The karyotypically abnormal AML patients were excluded from the study. Out of the 46 patients without chromosomal aberrations, 24 (52.2%) showed DNA copy number variations including losses and gains. The DNA copy number variations involved chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 12, 15, 16, 17 (gains) and 1, 4, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, 18, 20, 21 (losses). The aberrant immunophenotype was noticed in 13 of these 24 (54%) cases. The hidden chromosome rearrangements in karyotypically normal AML, which could not be detected by conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization, were detected by CGH. These genetic changes have an important role in the prognosis of the disease. The DNA copy number changes might also be involved in the aberrant immunophenotypes in our study. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Shukla P.,National Institute of Immunohaematology NIIH | Ghosh K.,National Institute of Immunohaematology NIIH | Vundinti B.R.,National Institute of Immunohaematology NIIH
HUGO Journal | Year: 2012

Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a rare disorder with incidence of 1in 350,000 births. It is characterized by progressive bone marrow failure leading to death of many patients in their childhood while development of cancer at later stages of life in some. The treatment of FA is still a medical challenge. Current treatments of FA include androgen administration, hematopoietic growth factors administration and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Clinical gene therapy trials are still ongoing. The partial success of current therapies has renewed interest in the search for new treatments. Generation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) has shown promising results for cell and gene based therapy. Small molecule interventions have been observed to delay tumor onset in FA. Tumors deficient in FA pathway can be treated by profiling of DNA repair pathway through synthetic lethality mechanism. Targeting toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) dependent TNFα overexpression is yet another upcoming therapeutic approach to treat FA patients. In conclusion, in the present scenario of treatments available for FA, a proper algorithm of treatment decisions must be followed for better management of FA patients and to ensure their increased survival. Innovative therapeutic approaches that can prevent both anemia and cancer should be developed for more effective treatment of FA. © 2012 Shukla et al; licensee Springer.


Shukla P.,National Institute of Immunohaematology NIIH | Solanki A.,National Institute of Immunohaematology NIIH | Ghosh K.,National Institute of Immunohaematology NIIH | Vundinti B.R.,National Institute of Immunohaematology NIIH
European Journal of Haematology | Year: 2013

Interstrand cross-links (ICLs) are extremely toxic DNA lesions that prevent DNA double-helix separation due to the irreversible covalent linkage binding of some agents on DNA strands. Agents that induce these ICLs are thus widely used as chemotherapeutic drugs but may also lead to tumor growth. Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder that leads to ICL sensitivity. This review provides update on current understanding of the role of FA proteins in repairing ICLs at various stages of cell cycle. We also discuss link between DNA cross-link genotoxicity caused by aldehydes in FA pathway. Besides this, we summarize various ICL agents that act as drugs to treat different types of tumors and highlight strategies for modulating ICL sensitivity for therapeutic interventions that may be helpful in controlling cancer and life-threatening disease, FA. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

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