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of Hygiene, Morocco

Kosik-Bogacka D.I.,Pomeranian Medical University | Kalisinska E.,Pomeranian Medical University | Henszel L.,National Institute of Hygiene | Kuzna-Grygiel W.,Pomeranian Medical University
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2012

The most common families of mites found in house dust are Pyroglyphidae, Glycyphagidae and Acaridae; all are a source of many antigens responsible for allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal dynamics of allergenic mite populations in dust samples collected from sleeping places in apartments in north-western Poland. The mites were isolated from the dust using a saturated saline floating method. In 132 dust samples we determined: Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Euroglyphus maynei, Hirstia sp., Chortoglyphus arcuatus, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Gohieria fusca and Cheyletus sp. The greatest frequency was observed for D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, Ch. arcuatus and Cheyletus sp., in the fourth quarter and D. farinae in the third quarter. Smaller coefficients of dominance were found for D. pteronyssinus, Ch. arcuatus and Cheyletus sp., and their greatest mean concentrations were found in the first and fourth quarters. Given the division of the year into heating and non-heating seasons, mites D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus achieved the highest mean concentration in the first season, and Cheyletus sp. in the second season. The analysis of the participation of developmental stages showed that the adults of D. farinae were more prevalent than juveniles in the first, second and third quarters, and imago stages of D. pteronyssinus were more numerous in relation to juveniles in the first, third and fourth quarters. The results confirm the high incidence of house dust mites in sleeping places in north-western Poland dwellings; the best conditions for the development of these mites, mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus, occur in the fourth quarter and are the least favourable in the second quarter. In many cases, these results are consistent with data from other parts of Poland collected by various authors. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Kartoglu U.,World Health Organization | Ozguler N.K.,Karaman Hayat Medical Center | Wolfson L.J.,World Health Organization | Kurzatkowski W.,National Institute of Hygiene
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2010

Objective: To determine the validity of the shake test for detecting freeze damage in aluminium-based, adsorbed, freeze-sensitive vaccines. Methods A double-blind crossover design was used to compare the performance of the shake test conducted by trained health-care workers (HCWs) with that of phase contrast microscopy as a "gold standard". A total of 475 vials of 8 different types of World Health Organization prequalified freeze-sensitive vaccines from 10 different manufacturers were used. Vaccines were kept at 5 °C. Selected numbers of vials from each type were then exposed to-25 °C and-2 °C for 24-hour periods. Findings: There was complete concordance between HCWs and phase-contrast microscopy in identifying freeze-damaged vials and non-frozen samples. Non-frozen samples showed a fine-grain structure under phase contrast microscopy, but freeze-damaged samples showed large conglomerates of massed precipitates with amorphous, crystalline, solid and needle-like structures. Particles in the non-frozen samples measured from 1 μm (vaccines against diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis; Haemophilus influenzae type b; hepatitis B; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B) to 20 μm (diphtheria and tetanus vaccines, alone or in combination). By contrast, aggregates in the freeze-damaged samples measured up to 700 μm (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis) and 350 μm on average. Conclusion: The shake test had 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value in this study, which confirms its validity for detecting freeze damage to aluminium-based freeze-sensitive vaccines. Source

Grabowski A.,Central Institute for Labour Protection | Rosinska M.,National Institute of Hygiene
European Physical Journal B | Year: 2012

On the basis of experimental data on interactions between humans we have investigated the process of epidemic spreading in a social network.We found that the distribution of the number of contacts maintained in one day is exponential. Data on frequency and duration of interpersonal interactions are presented. They allow us to simulate the spread of droplet-/-air-borne infections and to investigate the influence of human dynamics on the epidemic spread. Specifically, we investigated the influence of the distribution of frequency and duration of those contacts on magnitude, epidemic threshold and peak timing of epidemics propagating in respective networks. It turns out that a large increase in the magnitude of an epidemic and a decrease in epidemic threshold are visible if and only if both are taken into account. We have found that correlation between contact frequency and duration strongly influences the effectiveness of control measures like mass immunization campaigns. © EDP Sciences, Societá Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag 2012. Source

Mascari T.M.,Louisiana State University | Hanafi H.A.,United States Naval Medical Research Unit No 3 | Jackson R.E.,Syngenta | Ouahabi S.,National Institute of Hygiene | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013

Background:Leishmaniasis remains a global health problem because of the substantial holes that remain in our understanding of sand fly ecology and the failure of traditional vector control methods. The specific larval food source is unknown for all but a few sand fly species, and this is particularly true for the vectors of Leishmania parasites. We provide methods and materials that could be used to understand, and ultimately break, the transmission cycle of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis.Methods and Findings:We demonstrated in laboratory studies that analysis of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes found naturally in plant and animal tissues was highly effective for linking adult sand flies with their larval diet, without having to locate or capture the sand fly larvae themselves. In a field trial, we also demonstrated using this technique that half of captured adult sand flies had fed as larvae on rodent feces. Through the identification of rodent feces as a sand fly larval habitat, we now know that rodent baits containing insecticides that have been shown in previous studies to pass into the rodents' feces and kill sand fly larvae also could play a future role in sand fly control. In a second study we showed that rubidium incorporated into rodent baits could be used to demonstrate the level of bloodfeeding by sand flies on baited rodents, and that the elimination of sand flies that feed on rodents can be achieved using baits containing an insecticide that circulates in the blood of baited rodents.Conclusions:Combined, the techniques described could help to identify larval food sources of other important vectors of the protozoa that cause visceral or dermal leishmaniasis. Unveiling aspects of the life cycles of sand flies that could be targeted with insecticides would guide future sand fly control programs for prevention of leishmaniasis. Source

Rosinska M.,National Institute of Hygiene | Sieroslawski J.,Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology | Wiessing L.,European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

People who inject drugs (PWID) are an important group at risk of blood borne infections in Poland. However, robust evidence regarding the magnitude of the problem and geographical variation is lacking, while coverage of prevention remains low. We assessed the potential of combining bio-behavioural studies and case-based surveillance of PWID to gain insight into preventive needs in Poland. Methods: Results of a bio-behavioural human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence study among ever injectors in six regions in Poland were compared with HIV case-based surveillance trends from 2000 to 2012. Logistic regression was used for multivariable analyses in the prevalence study. The case surveillance data were correlated with prevalence data, by region, to determine surveillance validity and identify any recent trends. Results: HIV seroprevalence (18% overall) differed more than ten-fold across regions (2.4% to 32%), but HCV seroprevalence and the proportion of PWID sharing needles/syringes in the past 12 months were similar, 44% to 68% and 22% to 29%, respectively. In multivariable models accounting for socio-demographic factors, duration of injecting history and needle sharing practices, regional differences were significant for both HIV and HCV seroprevalence with adjusted odds ratios varying up to a factor of 12.6 for HIV and 3.8 for HCV. The number of new cases of HIV diagnosed in each region during the bio-behavioural study period was strongly correlated (r = 0.93) with HIV prevalence. There was an overall decreasing trend in the number of new diagnoses of HIV over time. However, a transient increase in three regions was preceded by a higher proportion of people with short injecting history (≤5 years) and a high prevalence of HCV coinciding with a low prevalence of HIV in the bio-behavioural study. Conclusions: Bio-behavioural and case-based data were consistent with respect to the regional distribution of HIV and also provided complementary information, with the proportion of new injectors and high HCV prevalence predicting increases in HIV case rates. We identified three regions in Poland that appear to be at increased need for preventive measures. Data point to the need for a stronger investment in harm reduction programmes in Poland. © Rosińska et al. Source

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