National Institute of Horticulture and Herbal Science

South Korea

National Institute of Horticulture and Herbal Science

South Korea
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Kim M.-J.,Jeju National University | Yang K.-W.,Jeju Love Co. | Yang K.-W.,Kyungnam University of Science and Technology | Kim S.S.,National Institute of Horticulture and Herbal Science | And 6 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2014

Though many essential oils from citrus peels are claimed to have several medicinal functions, the chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils of Citrus flowers have not been well described. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory potential of essential oils from C. unshiu flower (CEO) to support its purported beneficial health effects. The chemical constituents of the CEO, analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), included γ-terpinene (24.7%), 2-β-pinene (16.6%), 1-methyl-2-isopropylbenzene (11.5%), L-limonene (5.7%), β-ocimene (5.6%), and α-pinene (4.7%). The effects of the CEO on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were also examined. The results indicate that the CEO is an effective inhibitor of LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, CEO was shown to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6. Based on these results, CEO may be considered a potential anti-inflammatory candidate with human health benefits.


Kim M.-J.,Jeju National University | Yang K.-W.,Jeju Love Co. | Yang E.-J.,Jeju National University | Kim S.S.,National Institute of Horticulture and Herbal Science | And 5 more authors.
Oriental Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2015

In the present study, we investigated the effects of Citrus unshiu flower on regulatory mechanisms of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) involved in immunological activity of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results indicated that ethyl acetate fraction of Citrus unshiu flower (CUF-EA) downregulated LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, thereby reducing the production of NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, CUF-EA suppressed LPS-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-á. To elucidate its anti-inflammatory mechanisms, CUF-EA was investigated as an inhibitor of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. As expected, the phosphorylation of MAP kinases (p38, ERK1/2 and JNK) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages was suppressed by CUF-EA in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of CUF-EA might results from inhibition of NO, PGE2, iNOS, COX-2, IL-6 and TNF-á expressions through the down-regulation of phosphorylation of MAPKs in RAW 264.7 macrophages.


Kim M.-J.,Jeju National University | Yang K.-W.,Jeju Love Co. | Yang K.-W.,Kyungnam University of Science and Technology | Kim S.S.,National Institute of Horticulture and Herbal Science | And 7 more authors.
EXCLI Journal | Year: 2013

A number of essential oils derived from plants are claimed to have several medicinal functions, including anti-cancer and anti-inflammation effects. However, the chemical composition and biological activities of flower-derived components have not been sufficiently characterized. Therefore, we investigated the composition of essential oils from Hallabong flower [(Citrus unshiu Marcov × Citrus sinensis Osbeck) × Citrus reticulata Blanco] and their antiinflammatory effects. Hydro-distilled essential oils (HEOs) were analyzed using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 21 components were identified, representing more than 98 % of the oils, with sabinene (34.75 %), linalool (14.77 %), β-ocimene (11.07 %), 4-terpineol (9.63 %), L-limonene (5.88 %), and γ-terpinene (4.67 %) as the main components. In the present study, we also investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of HEOs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. HEOs were found to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and to suppress the LPSinduced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein. In addition, HEOs downregulated the production of the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β (IC50 values are 0.05 %, 0.02 %, and 0.01 %, respectively). On the basis of these results, we suggest that HEOs can be considered potential anti-inflammatory candidates for therapeutic use in humans.


Choi E.-Y.,Konkuk University | Moon J.-H.,National Institute of Horticulture and Herbal Science | Lee W.-M.,National Institute of Horticulture and Herbal Science | Son S.-H.,National Institute of Horticulture and Herbal Science | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2010

This study aimed to investigate the effects of simulated acid rain (AR) treatments, differing in pH levels (5.5 (control), 4.5, 3.5 and 2.5), on the antioxidant enzyme activities, growth and fruit yields of pepper and watermelon plants. Results of this study showed that a single application of the AR treatments had no effect on the growth of watermelon plants, whereas significant decreases in the growth and fruit yield of pepper plants were observed at both of the AR-pH 3.5 and AR-pH 2.5 treatments. The stem and leaf dry weight, fruit fresh weight and fruit number of pepper decreased approximately 23, 22, 21 and 30% (P < 0.05) respectively, at the AR-pH 3.5 treatment compared to those of control plants (AR-pH 5.5), while decreases of approximately 29, 22, 39 and 43% (P < 0.05) respectively, were observed at the AR-pH 2.5 treatment. This result indicates that the difference in the reduction offrait yield of pepper between the AR-pH 3.5 and AR-pH 2.5 treatments was greater than the difference in the reduction of the stem and leaf dry weight between the two treatments. These results coincided with higher degree inhibition and continuing reduction of the APX enzyme activity in the pepper leaves, compared to those of the watermelon plant. Calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) concentrations decreased approximately 22 and 6% (P < 0.05) in the leaves exposed to the AR-pH 2.5 treatment for 3 h, compared to those of control plants (AR-pH 5.5 treated plants). Either water or Fe-EDTA (0.1 mM) was sprayed onto the leaves exposed to the AR-pH 2.5 treatment for 30 min at the fruit growth stage and seedling stage in order to alleviate the injury of the AR. The foliar-applied water prevented the development of leaf symptoms, growth reduction and yield loss at the fruit growth stage as well as at the seedling stages of the pepper plant. The stem dry weight, leaf dry weight, fruit fresh weight and fruit number of fruiting pepper plants applied with water increased by approximately 33, 34, 35 and 40% (P < 0.05) respectively, compared to those of the AR-pH 2.5 treated plants. The post-treatment of either water or Fe-EDTA resulted in no leaf symptoms in plants at both stages. The plant height, leaf area and leaf dry weight of pepper seedlings increased by approximately 7% (P < 0.05), 17% (P < 0.05), and 3% (P < 0.001) respectively, compared to the AR-pH 2.5 treated seedlings.

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