National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science
National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science
Seo K.-H.,Kyung Hee University |
Lee D.-Y.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science |
Lee Y.-G.,Kyung Hee University |
Baek N.-I.,Kyung Hee University
Phytochemistry | Year: 2017
Seven dineolignans of the 3-O-4' diphenyl ether-type (obovatalignans C-I, respectively), were isolated from fruits of Magnolia obovata through repeated silica gel (SiO2), octadecyl SiO2, and Sep-Pak chromatographies. Their chemical structures were determined based on various spectroscopic methods including NMR, HR-MS, IR, specific rotation, and CD spectrometry. Especially, compounds 1-5 include the relatively rare 1,4-benzodioxane ring moiety in the molecular structure. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.
Kim J.-S.,Korea University |
Lee W.-M.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science |
Rhee H.C.,Protected Horticulture Research Institute |
Kim S.,Korea University
Chemico-Biological Interactions | Year: 2016
This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of red paprika extract (RPE) and its main carotenoids, namely, capsanthin (CST) and β-carotene (BCT), on the H2O2-induced inhibition of gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells (WB cells). We found that pre-treatment with RPE, CST and BCT protected WB cells from H2O2-induced inhibition of GJIC. RPE, CST and BCT not only recovered connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression but also prevented phosphorylation of Cx43 protein by H2O2 treatment. RPE attenuated the phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and JNK, whereas pre-treatment with CST and BCT only attenuated the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 and did not affect JNK in H2O2-treated WB cells. RPE, CST and BCT significantly suppressed the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H2O2-treated cells compared to untreated WB cells. These results suggest that dietary intake of red paprika might be helpful for lowering the risk of diseases caused by oxidative stress. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Palukaitis P.,Seoul Womens University |
Yoon J.-Y.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science |
Choi S.-K.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science |
Carr J.P.,University of Cambridge
Current Opinion in Virology | Year: 2017
Induced resistance against plant viruses has been studied for many years. However, with the exception of RNA silencing, induced resistance to viruses remains mechanistically less well understood than for other plant pathogens. In contrast, the induction processes involved in induced resistance, comprising basal resistance signaling, effector-triggered immunity, and phytohormone pathways, have been increasingly well characterized in recent years. This has allowed induced resistance to viruses to be placed in a broader conceptual framework linking it to other defense systems, which we discuss in this review. We also discuss the range of agents, including chemicals and beneficial microorganisms and application methods that can be used to induce resistance to viruses. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Yoon J.Y.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science |
Choi G.S.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science |
Choi S.K.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science
Plant Disease | Year: 2017
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Korea in 2004 (Choi et al. 2004) and the virus is currently widespread in the country, infecting pepper, tomato, potato, and wild plant species (Choi et al. 2014). TSWV is transmitted by at least 11 species of thrips (e.g., Frankliniella occidentalis), one species of Ceratothripoides, and one species of Scirtothrips. Transmission can also be archived through infected plant sap. Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) is an herbaceous annual and an emerging flower for weddings, producing eight million cutting flowers in 2014 in Korea. In January 2016, virus-like symptoms including mosaic and wilting followed by necrosis on leaves and branch were observed in lisianthus plants in a greenhouse in Tae-An-gun, Korea. Approximately 10% of lisianthus plants (about 3,000 plants) in the greenhouse showed virus-like foliar symptoms, based on visual estimates. To identify a causal virus, four symptomatic leaf samples of lisianthus plants were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of leaf dip-preparations. Tospovirus-like particles (about 80 to 100 nm in diameter) were observed from all the samples of lisianthus plants. To confirm TEM result, the symptomatic leaf samples were further analyzed using double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA kits (Agdia, Elkhart, U.S.A.) for the presence of three lisianthus-infecting viruses, such as Bean yellow mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, and TSWV, as our preliminary survey on flowers. A positive control and a negative control (leaves of healthy a lisianthus plant) were used. DAS-ELISA clearly showed that TSWV was only detected serologically from the naturally infected lisianthus plants. The single infection of TSWV in the symptomatic lisianthus plants was further confirmed by a TSWV-Immunostrip kit (Agdia). To confirm the presence of TSWV alone, RT-PCR products were synthesized for L, M, and S RNA segments using Tospovirus-specific primers and TSWV-specific primers (Batuman et al. 2014; Choi et al. 2014). The expected fragments of 445, 868, and 777 bp were amplified and sequenced (LC191920, LC191921, LC168751). The sequences of each fragment were identical to a consensus sequence, showing 97, 98, and 99% identity with TSWV-L, M, and S RNA (KC494520, HM581941, and KC494482), respectively. These results clearly showed that the results of DAS-ELISA and the TSWV-Immunostrip kit were not due to interspecies cross-reactivity of the virus-specific antibodies. The results of sequence comparisons showed no reassortment between TSWV and another tospovirus. Taken together, a distinct TSWV isolate is the causal agent in the diseased lisianthus plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of TSWV in lisianthus in Korea. The epidemic nature of TSWV, along with lisianthus production in Korea, warrants monitoring for TSWV in greenhouse production in Korea. © The American Phytopathological Society.
Yang E.-J.,Kyungpook National University |
Kim G.-S.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science |
Kim J.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science |
Song K.-S.,Kyungpook National University
Pharmacognosy Magazine | Year: 2013
Background: Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by progressive neuron degeneration in specific functional systems of the central or peripheral nervous system. This study investigated the protective effects of quercetin isolated from onion on neuronal cells and its protective mechanisms against glutamate-induced apoptosis in HT22 cells. Materials and Methods: HT22 cells were cultured to study the neuroprotective mechanism of quercetin against glutamate-mediated oxidative stress. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ) were measured. The protein expression of calpain, spectrin, Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, cytochrome c, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was evaluated by Western blotting. Results: Quercetin had a protective effect by reducing both intracellular ROS overproduction and glutamate-mediated Ca 2+ influx. These effects were due to the downregulation of several apoptosis-related biochemical markers. Calpain expression was reduced and spectrin cleavage was inhibited by quercetin in glutamate-exposed HT22 cells. Disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bid and Bax, and cytochrome c release in response to glutamate-induced oxidative stress were reduced. Quercetin also suppressed phosphorylation of MAPKs. Conclusion: This is the first report on the detailed mechanisms of the protective effect of quercetin on HT22 cells. Onion extract and quercetin may be useful for preventing or treating neurodegenerative disorders.
Kim S.S.,Jeju National University |
Hyun C.-G.,Bio Conversion Center |
Choi Y.H.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science |
Lee N.H.,Jeju National University
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013
This study was designed to investigate the mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity for the constituents isolated from Neolitsea aciculata. The stems of N. aciculata was extracted with aqueous ethanol and subjected to chromatographic separation, which led to the isolation of 11 compounds: methyl linoleate (1), catechin (2), epicatechin (3), afzelin-7-O-glucopyranoside (4), 2′,3′-di-(p-coumaroyl)afzelin (5), 2′-p-coumaroylafzelin (6), feruloyl tyramine (7), β-sitosterol (8), daucosterol (9), oleic acid (10), and trilaurin (11). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies as well as by comparison with the data available in the literature. Among these isolates, compounds 5 and 6 were identified as potent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors with IC50 values of 0.067 and 0.080 mM, respectively. The inhibition kinetics, analysed by Lineweaver-Burk plots, indicated that compounds 5 and 6 are competitive tyrosinase inhibitors when using l-tyrosine as a substrate. Notably, compounds 1-11 were isolated for the first time from this plant. These results provide evidence that this plant might be a potential source of anti-melanogenesis agents. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.
Karna S.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science
Pharmacognosy Magazine | Year: 2017
Background: Prostaglandins (PGs) have short existence in vivo because they are rapidly metabolized by NAD+-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) to 15-ketoprostaglandins. Inhibition of 15-PGDH causes elevated level of PGE2 in cellular system. It will be valuable for the therapeutic management of diseases requiring elevated PGE2 levels, like wound healing. Objective: Ninety-eight plant samples were screened for the discovery of potent 15-PGDH inhibitor. Among them, top five plant extracts as potent 15-PGDH inhibitor were chosen to determine PGE2 release from HaCaT (Keratinocyte cell line) cell line. Finally, top 15-PGDH inhibitor was selected to evaluate in vitro wound healing effect on HaCaT scratch model. Method: The inhibitory activity for 15-PGDH inhibitors was evaluated using fluorescence spectrophotometer by measuring the formation of NADH at 468 nm following excitation at 340 nm. Cell viability assay and PGE2 release was evaluated in HaCaT cell line after treatment of 15-PGDH inhibitors. Scratches were made using sterile 200 μL on HaCaT cell and wound-healing effect was evaluated after treatment of 15-PGDH inhibitor. Results: 15-PGDH inhibitors elevated PGE2 levels in concentration-dependent manner. Ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus (EEAH), the most potent 15-PGDH inhibitor (IC50 = 0.62 μg/mL) with least cytotoxicity (IC50 = 670 μg/ml), elevated both intracellular and extracellular PGE2 levels. EEAH facilitated in-vitro wound healing in a HaCaT (Keratinocyte cell line) scratch model. Conclusion: EEAH might apply to treat dermal wounds by elevating PGE2 levels via COX-1 induction and 15-PGDH inhibition. Abbreviations used: 15-PGDH: 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, COX: Cyclooxygenase, DTT: Dithiothreitol, DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's media, EEAH: Ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus, MRP4: Multidrug resistance 4, PGs: Prostaglandins, PGT: Prostaglandin transporter, SDS: Sodium dodecylsulfate. © 2017 Pharmacognosy Magazine, Published by Wolters Kluwer-Medknow.
Kim S.,Chonnam National University |
Yoon M.-K.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science
Current Genetics | Year: 2010
To study genetic relatedness of two male sterility-inducing cytotypes, the phylogenetic relationship among three cytotypes of onions (Allium cepa L.) was assessed by analyzing polymorphisms of the mitochondrial DNA organization and chloroplast sequences. The atp6 gene and a small open reading frame, orf22, did not differ between the normal and CMS-T cytotypes, but two SNPs and one 4-bp insertion were identified in CMS-S cytotype. Partial sequences of the chloroplast ycf2 gene were integrated in the upstream sequence of the cob gene via short repeat sequence-mediated recombination. However, this chloroplast DNA-integrated organization was detected only in CMS-S. Interestingly, disruption of a group II intron of cox2 was identified for the first time in this study. Like other trans-splicing group II introns in mitochondrial genomes, fragmentation of the intron occurred in domain IV. Two variants of each exon1 and exon2 flanking sequences were identified. The predominant types of four variants were identical in both the normal and the CMS-T cytotypes. These predominant types existed as sublimons in CMS-S cytotypes. Altogether, no differences were identified between normal and CMS-T, but significant differences in gene organization and nucleotide sequences were identified in CMS-S, suggesting recent origin of CMS-T male-sterility from the normal cytotype. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Kim J.G.,Gyeongsang National University |
Kim H.L.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science |
Kim S.J.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science |
Park K.-S.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science
Journal of Zhejiang University: Science B | Year: 2013
Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in 'Elliott', 'Rubel', 'Rancocas', and 'Friendship'. © 2013 Zhejiang University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Park M.-H.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science |
Kim J.-G.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2015
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is used to control postharvest diseases and delays deterioration related to the ripening of fresh produce. Here, we investigated the effect of UV-C on the quality and functional properties of peeled garlic during storage. UV-C-treated garlic cloves remained firmer than the controls during storage. After 15 days at room temperature, hue values were lower for UV-C-treated garlic cloves than for the controls, which developed a yellow coloration. We also found that aerobic microbial populations were lower in 2kJm-2 UV-C-treated garlic than in untreated controls when stored at room temperature for 15 days (6.78log CFU vs. 6.10log CFU); however, treated garlic stored at 0°C showed a one-log reduction in the microbial population after 30 days. In addition, total polyphenol and flavonoid content was high in 2kJm-2 UV-C-treated garlic after 15 days storage at 0°C and total flavonoid content was significantly higher in UV-treated cloves than in the control cloves up to 10 days storage at room temperature. Apigenin and quercetin levels also increased in UV-C treated garlic under cold storage. Thus, UV-C irradiation could be used to reduce the microbial population and maintain or increase antioxidant levels in peeled garlic cloves. © 2014.