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Kim M.K.,Seoul Womens University | Back C.-G.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science | Jung H.-Y.,Kyungpook National University | Srinivasan S.,Seoul Womens University
Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Spirosoma radiotolerans is a Gram-negative, short rod-shaped and gamma-radiation-resistant bacterium isolated from rice field in South Korea (GPS; 37°34'30″. N, 127°00'30″. E). The complete genome of S. radiotolerans consists of a chromosome (7,029,352. bp). From the genome sequence database, we have identified the cluster of genes responsible for DNA recovery from ionizing radiation. The key enzymes for the nucleotide excision repair (NER) were investigated and were identified, suggesting that S. radiotolerans DG5A use (NER) pathways for efficient removal of pyrimidine dimers which are the most abundant type of UV-induced damage. Complete genome information enables further studies on the DNA repair mechanisms during the ionizing radiation. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Sharma K.,Konkuk University | Assefa A.D.,Konkuk University | Kim S.,Konkuk University | Ko E.Y.,Konkuk University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Onion is undoubtedly one of the major sources of flavonoids. However, there exists a varietal difference in composition, concentration and beneficial activities of onion, on the basis of cultivars, day length sensitivity/ripening and types. To characterise such differences, 18 onion cultivars from Korean were evaluated for their total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Simultaneous quantification of quercetin, quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside, quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside and isorhamnetin-3-glucoside was made in methanol and 75% ethanol. RESULTS: Total phenolic content was examined spectrophotometrically with the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent and total antioxidant activity were studied by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) methods. The cultivar 'Sunpower' showed the highest level of total phenolics [5016±30.0 μg gallic acid equivalents g-1 dry weight (DW)] and flavonoids (2873.95±60.01 μg Q g-1 DW) among the 18 cultivars in methanol. However, there were fewer total phenolics and flavonoids in ethanol extracts. The antioxidant activity for cultivar Sunpower was highest in ethanol extracts 24.12±1.00 and 16.13±0.35 μmol L-1 Trolox equivalents g-1 DW with FRAP and DPPH, respectively. CONCLUSION: Among the 18 cultivars, Sunpower is the most promising in terms of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that day length sensitivity/ripening among the cultivars do not play any significant role for high values of total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

Kim S.,Chonnam National University | Yoon M.-K.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science
Current Genetics | Year: 2010

To study genetic relatedness of two male sterility-inducing cytotypes, the phylogenetic relationship among three cytotypes of onions (Allium cepa L.) was assessed by analyzing polymorphisms of the mitochondrial DNA organization and chloroplast sequences. The atp6 gene and a small open reading frame, orf22, did not differ between the normal and CMS-T cytotypes, but two SNPs and one 4-bp insertion were identified in CMS-S cytotype. Partial sequences of the chloroplast ycf2 gene were integrated in the upstream sequence of the cob gene via short repeat sequence-mediated recombination. However, this chloroplast DNA-integrated organization was detected only in CMS-S. Interestingly, disruption of a group II intron of cox2 was identified for the first time in this study. Like other trans-splicing group II introns in mitochondrial genomes, fragmentation of the intron occurred in domain IV. Two variants of each exon1 and exon2 flanking sequences were identified. The predominant types of four variants were identical in both the normal and the CMS-T cytotypes. These predominant types existed as sublimons in CMS-S cytotypes. Altogether, no differences were identified between normal and CMS-T, but significant differences in gene organization and nucleotide sequences were identified in CMS-S, suggesting recent origin of CMS-T male-sterility from the normal cytotype. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Chun J.-A.,Dong - A University | Lee J.-W.,Dong - A University | Yi Y.-B.,Dong - A University | Hong S.-S.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science | Chung C.-H.,Dong - A University
Starch/Staerke | Year: 2010

Starch can be exploited as an abundant resource for sustainable production of diverse chemical intermediates such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). We present a simple process of producing HMF from starches using an ionic liquid, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([OMIM]Cl), and CrCl2 catalyst. The addition of HCl and CrCl2 significantly affected the yields of HMF on the whole. CrCl2 increased the yields of HMF by approximately two-folds on average. The synthesis of HMF was most effective between 60 and 90 min reaction time at both concentrations of 0.3 and 0.5 M HCl. Starch concentration had influence on the productivity of HMF. At 20% starch concentration with 0.3 and 0.5 M HCl, its productivity was greatest (2.8 folds high). Eight starch sources (corn, wheat, rice, potato tuber, sweet potato, tapioca, acorn, and kudzu starch) were tested for the synthesis of HMF. The highest yields of HMF (73.0 ± 3.8 wt%) were obtained in tapioca starch dissolved in 0.5 M HCl. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Ahn Y.K.,National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science | Park T.-H.,Daegu University
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science | Year: 2013

Potato is one of the most important crops in the world and the common scab caused by Streptomyces species is a serious disease. To control the disease, agronomical, chemical and biological methods are commonly applied; however, the introduction of resistance into cultivated potatoes has been considered to be the most promising approach. Therefore, in this study, the authors identified resistant breeding lines derived from somatic hybrids that were produced by protoplast fusions between Solanum brevidens and Solanum tuberosum. Initially, in vitro assay was applied to select resistant interspecific hybrids, but field assays were also performed to develop resistant breeding lines and populations. Although chromosome number and crossability were not completely recovered back to the cultivated potatoes on somatic hybrids and backcross populations, breeding lines and populations with resistance to common scab that could be used for further breeding were developed. Finally, four BC2 populations were selected and tested for resistance to the common scab and for productivity. There were variations in resistance to the common scab within each line and in productivity between lines, but the average percentages of tuber surface area with disease symptom in BC2 lines were approximately 85% and 46% less than the commercial parent controls, 'Dejiam' and 'Superior', respectively and the productivities of two populations recovered by 80-103% and 90-115% relative to 'Dejiam' and 'Superior', respectively. The results obtained in this study may contribute genetic analysis and further breeding for resistance to the common scab. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

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