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Colpani V.,Gynecological Endocrinology Unit | Oppermann K.,University Of Passo Fundo | Oppermann K.,National Institute of Hormones and Womens Health | Spritzer P.M.,Gynecological Endocrinology Unit | And 2 more authors.
Menopause | Year: 2013

Objective: Menopause is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Habitual physical activity, defined as any form of body movement with energy expenditure above resting levels, may improve health parameters. We assessed the level of habitual physical activity and its effect on anthropometric measures and cardiovascular risk factors in a cohort of premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women. Methods: This cross-sectional study is nested on a longitudinal population-based study that was begun in 1995 in the city of Passo Fundo, Brazil. For the present analysis, 292 women were included. Anthropometric and metabolic profile was evaluated. Habitual physical activity was assessed by a digital pedometer for 7 days, and participants were stratified into active and inactive (≥6,000 and <6,000 steps/day, respectively). Results: The mean (SD) age was 57.1 (5.4) years. The average number of steps per day for the total sample was 5,250.7 (3,372.9): 3,472.4 (1,570.2) in the inactive group (61.8%) and 9,055.9 (3,033.4) in the active group (31.9%). A negative and statistically significant correlation was found between physical activity and smoking (P = -0.019), body mass index (P = -0.006), waist circumference (P = -0.013), and waist-to-hip ratio of 0.85 or higher (P = -0.043). Inactive women presented a higher risk of overweight/obesity (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; 95% CI, 1.233-3.622; P = 0.006) and waist circumference larger than 88 cm (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.054-2.942; P = 0.03), even after adjustment for age, menopause status, smoking, and hormone therapy. Inactive women also had a higher risk of diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.233-6.295; P = 0.014) and metabolic syndrome (OR, 2.5, 95% CI, 1.443-4.294; P = 0.001). Conclusions: Habitual physical activity, specifically walking 6,000 or more steps daily, was associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in middle-aged women, independently of menopause status. © 2012 by The North American Menopause Society. Source

Newsholme P.,Curtin University Australia | De Bittencourt P.I.H.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | De Bittencourt P.I.H.,National Institute of Hormones and Womens Health
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care | Year: 2014

Obesity is a chronic inflammatory disease in which the physiological resolution of inflammation is attenuated, leading to low-grade inflammation throughout the body. However, the heat shock response, which is a key component of the physiological response to resolve inflammation, is seriously hampered in adipose tissue and other metabolic organs (e.g. skeletal muscle, liver, pancreatic β-cells) in metabolic diseases. In this review, we hypothesize that adipocyte metabolic stress triggers the onset of fat cell senescence, and companion senescence-Associated secretory phenotype (SASP), and that such a scenario is responsible for attenuating the resolution of inflammation. RECENT FINDINGS: We shall discuss the role of the heat shock response in the context of the resolution of inflammation and the relevance of heat shock response blockade in chronic inflammatory diseases. Sirtuin-1 is responsible for the induction of heat shock transcription factor-1 mRNA expression and for the stabilization of heat shock transcription factor-1 in a high-profile activity state. However, adipose tissue-emanated SASP depress sirtuin-1 expression, leading adipocytes to a perpetual state of unresolved inflammation, due to a dampening of the heat shock response. SUMMARY: The advance of inflammasome-mediated SASP from adipose to other tissues promotes cellular senescence in many other cells of the organism, aggravating obesity-dependent chronic inflammation. Inducers of heat shock response (e.g. heat shock itself, physical exercise and calorie restriction) may efficiently interrupt this vicious cycle and are envisaged as the best and also the most economical treatment for obesity-related chronic diseases.Copyright © Lippincott Williams &Wilkins. Source

Graff S.K.,Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit | Mario F.M.,Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit | Alves B.C.,Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit | Spritzer P.M.,Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit | And 2 more authors.
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2013

Objective To compare glycemic index (GI) in the usual diet of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and control women and to investigate whether dietary GI is associated with body composition and anthropometric and metabolic variables across PCOS phenotypes. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University hospital outpatient clinic. Patient(s) Sixty-one women with PCOS and 44 nonhirsute women with ovulatory cycles. Intervention(s) Metabolic work-up, biochemical and hormonal assays, assessment of body composition and rest metabolic rate, physical activity (pedometer), and food consumption (food frequency questionnaire). Main outcome measure(s) GI, glycemic load, dietary intake, and hormone and metabolic profile in PCOS versus control and in PCOS women stratified by tertiles of GI and PCOS phenotype. Result(s) Mean age was 23.7 ± 6.3 years. Participants with PCOS had higher body fat percentage, fasting insulin, insulin resistance, lipid accumulation product, and androgen levels compared with control women. PCOS and control women in the highest tertile of GI had higher body mass index and waist circumference than those in the lowest tertile. Dietary GI was higher in the classic PCOS group. Obesity and this more severe PCOS phenotype explained 28.3% of variance in dietary GI. Conclusion(s) Dietary GI is increased in the classic PCOS phenotype and associated with a less favorable anthropometric and metabolic profile. Obesity and classic PCOS phenotype are age-independent predictors of higher dietary GI. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Published by Elsevier Inc. Source

Lecke S.B.,Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit | Mattei F.,Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit | Mattei F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Morsch D.M.,Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit | And 3 more authors.
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2011

Objective: To determine leptin and adiponectin serum levels and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and nonhirsute, ovulatory women; and leptin/adiponectin (L/A) ratio. Design: Case-control study. Setting: University hospital gynecologic endocrinology unit. Patient(s): Thirty-one women with PCOS and 57 controls. Intervention(s): Anthropometric, hormonal, and metabolic assessment; subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy. Main Outcome Measure(s): Leptin and adiponectin serum levels, L/A ratio, controlled by age, and gene expression in women with PCOS and controls, stratified by body mass index and variables associated with androgen excess and insulin resistance. Result(s): Serum leptin was higher in overweight/obese patients with PCOS than in all normal-weight control women. Adiponectin levels were similar in all subgroups. The L/A ratio was lower in normal-weight controls (1.80; range 0.94-3.72) than in overweight/obese controls (5.27; range 2.66-13.58) and patients with PCOS (7.73; range 3.81-15.04). Subcutaneous leptin messenger RNA was higher in overweight/obese women with PCOS than in normal-weight controls (2.316 [range 1.987-2.580] vs. 1.687 [range 1.518-2.212]). Adiponectin gene expression was similar in all groups. Positive correlations were found between serum and messenger RNA levels for both leptin and adiponectin. On multiple regression analysis, percentage of body fat contributed significantly to L/A ratio in PCOS, independently of body mass index and free androgen index. Conclusion(s): In PCOS, altered adipocyte secretion seems to relate to adiposity rather than to androgen excess. © 2011 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Source

Vieira C.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Vieira C.S.,National Institute of Hormones and Womens Health | Bahamondes M.V.,National Institute of Hormones and Womens Health | Bahamondes M.V.,University of Campinas | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2014

Objective:: Data on the interaction between the etonogestrel (ENG) implant and antiretroviral therapy are lacking. We evaluated the effect of 2 highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens (1 including efavirenz and the other ritonavir-boosted lopinavir) on the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of an ENG-releasing implant in HIV-positive women. Design:: Prospective nonrandomized PK study. Methods:: Forty-five HIV-positive women who desired to use ENG implants were included: 15 had received zidovudine/lamivudine + lopinavir/ritonavir for ≥3 months (LPV/r-based HAART group), 15 had received zidovudine/lamivudine + efavirenz for ≥3 months (EFV-based HAART group), and 15 had not received HAART (non-HAART group). PK parameters were measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry at baseline and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks after implant placement. Results:: The EFV-based HAART regimen was associated with a reduction in the bioavailability of ENG, which showed decreases of 63.4%, 53.7%, and 70% in the area under the curve (AUC), maximum concentration (Cmax), and minimum concentration (Cmin) of ENG, respectively, compared with the non-HAART group. The LPV/r-based HAART regimen was associated with an increase in ENG bioavailability, which showed 52%, 60.6%, and 33.8% increases in the ENG AUC, Cmax, and Cmin, respectively, compared with the non-HAART group. Conclusions:: The coadministration of EFV decreased the bioavailability of ENG released from the implant, which could impair contraceptive efficacy. However, the coadministration of LPV/r increased the bioavailability of ENG released from the implant, which suggests that this antiretroviral combination does not impair the ENG implant efficacy. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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