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Yahata Y.,National Institute of Infectious DiseasesTokyo | Sugita-Konishi Y.,Azabu UniversityKanagawa | Ohnishi T.,National Institute of Health SciencesTokyo | Toyokawa T.,Okinawa Prefectural Nanbu Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Raw fish consumption is increasing worldwide. Since around the year 2000, western regions of Japan have reported a foodborne disease of unknown cause that occurred after the consumption of flounder. In October 2010, a particularly large outbreak was reported in these regions among in-dividuals who consumed flounder fish that had been raised in aquaculture systems. The median incuba-tion period was 5 h (range, 4–19 h), and the most frequently reported symptom was diarrhea (80z). The risk estimate of the consumption of flounder was significantly higher than that of the development of symptoms (odds ratio = 9.50; 95z confidence interval, 1.59–/). According to a trace-back investigation, all of the flounder responsible for the outbreak were raised in aquaculture systems. Microscopic examination revealed that the median amount of Kudoa septempunctata present in the muscle of flounder fish from the aquaculture farm was 4.5 × 103 spores/g (range, 1.0 × 103 -9.6 × 106 spores/ g). The number of K. septempunctata spores required for the development of illness, as estimated using the Monte Carlo simulation, was 7.2 × 107 spores/g; therefore, thus this might be the minimum ingestion threshold for the development of gastrointestinal symptoms. As a public health measure, the cur-rent study results should be referred to for the prevention of the gastrointestinal symptoms related to the consumption of flounder; the national public health authority has disseminated these results. We con-cluded that K. septempunctata-contaminated flounder fish were associated with the gastrointestinal symptoms of this recent outbreak. © 2015, National Institute of Health. All rights reserved. Source

Koba Y.,Nagasaki University | Hirata Y.,Nagasaki University | Ueda A.,Nagasaki University | Oba M.,Nagasaki University | And 4 more authors.
Biopolymers | Year: 2016

Chiral five-membered carbocyclic ring amino acids bearing various diol acetal moieties were synthesized starting from l-malic acid, and homo-chiral homopeptides composed of cyclic amino acid (S)-Ac5c3EG bearing an ethylene glycol acetal, up to an octapeptide, were prepared. A conformational analysis revealed that (S)-Ac5c3EG homopeptides formed helical structures. (S)-Ac5c3EG homopeptides, up to hexapeptides, formed helical structures without controlling the helical screw direction, while (S)-Ac5c3EG hepta- and octapeptides formed helical structures with a preference for the left-handed (M) helical-screw direction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 555–562, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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