Setagaya ku, United States
Setagaya ku, United States

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Samaraweera Y.,University of Kelaniya | Abeysena C.,University of Kelaniya | Abeysena C.,National Institute of Health science
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2010

Aims: To determine risk factors for miscarriage. Methods: A case control study was carried out at the gynaecological wards and antenatal clinics of the De Soysa Maternity Hospital in Sri Lanka. A case was defined as that of mothers with a confirmed diagnosis of partial or full expulsion of the fetus during the first 28 weeks of gestation. Controls comprised ante-natal clinic attendees whose period of gestation was <28 weeks and carrying a viable fetus. Two hundred and thirty cases and 504 controls were selected. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire and modified life events inventory were used to gather data. Multivariate logistic regression was applied separately for first and second trimester miscarriages and the results were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and as 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results: Sleeping ≤8 hday (OR:3.80, 95%CI:1.01-14.3) was found to be a risk factor for first trimester miscarriage controlling for the effect of period of gestation. Sleeping ≤8 hday (OR:2.04, 95%CI:1.24-3.37), standing ≤3 hday (OR:1.83, 95%CI:1.08-3.10), exposure to cooking smoke (OR:3.83, 95%CI:1.50-9.90) and physical trauma during the pregnancy (OR:43.2, 95%CI:4.55-411.4) were found to be risk factors for second trimester miscarriage controlling for the effect of period of gestation. Conclusions: Sleep deprivation, a sedentary lifestyle, exposure to cooking smoke and physical trauma during pregnancy were risk factors for miscarriage. Most of the risk factors are therefore modifiable. © 2010 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.


Rampatige R.,University of Queensland | Gamage S.,National Institute of Health science | Peiris S.,Ministry of Health | Lopez A.D.,University of Queensland
Health Information Management Journal | Year: 2013

Information on causes of death is critical for informed decision making in the health sector. This paper reports findings from a study that measured the accuracy of registered causes of death and quality of medical records for a sample of deaths occurring in hospitals in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Five physicians, trained in medical certification of cause of death, reconstructed death certifi cates for hospital deaths from medical records and assessed the quality of medical records for this purpose. The majority of medical records were found to be of average quality. Concordance between the underlying cause of death in the vital registration data and that from the 'gold standard' (medical records review) diagnosis was 41.4% (n=249). The sensitivity of all leading causes of death and positive predictive value were below 67%. Major misclassifi cation errors were found in identifying deaths due to vascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Certified causes of death in Sri Lanka are frequently incorrect, thus limiting their value for health policy and for monitoring progress towards development goals. Sri Lanka, and other countries at a similar level of statistical development, should consider periodically conducting research to evaluate the quality of cause of death reporting at both local and national levels.


Igimi S.,National Institute of Health science
Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine | Year: 2012

Appropriate handling and controlled temperature prevent cross-contamination and proliferation of contaminants in foods, thereby reducing the incidences of food-borne gastroenteritis in Japan. However, the incidence of Campylobacter jejuni/coli infection did not markedly decrease and has become one of the major causes of food-borne diseases. C. jejuni and C. coli are widespread in warm-blooded domestic animals; therefore, food products may easily become contaminated during processing. C. jejuni and C. coli do not proliferate in foods, nor resistant to freezing, drying and oxidative stresses, and the number is greatly reduced under such conditions. These properties should be considered for risk management of Campylobacter in food processing and manufacturing.


PubMed | National Institute of Health science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Shokuhin eiseigaku zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan | Year: 2016

The residual and migration levels of 28 primary aromatic amines (PAAs) in polyurethane and nylon toys were determined using LC-MS/MS, and the migration and residual amounts of PAAs and 15 colorants in textile toys were determined using LC-MS/MS and LC-TOF-MS according to the European Standard EN71. Among 34 polyurethane toy samples, 2,6-diaminotoluene and 2,4-diaminotoluene were detected in the same 12 samples at residual levels ranging from 2.1 to 19.7 and from 7.6 to 39.6 g/g, respectively. Furthermore, 4,4-diaminodiphenylmethane (4,4-MDA) and aniline were detected in 9 samples (from 0.2 to 8.7 g/g), and one sample (0.4 g/g), respectively. PAAs were not detected in the 8 samples of nylon toys. As for the migration test into water, only 4,4-MDA migrated from 3 polyurethane toys at levels ranging from 0.4 to 2.5 g/g. PAAs did not migrate from the 43 textile toys, but colorants such as Solvent Yellow 1 and Basic Red 9 were detected at the residual level of 0.02 g/g. The residual levels of PAAs and colorants detected in this study were significantly lower than the limit values established by the European Union regulation.


PubMed | National Institute of Health science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biocontrol science | Year: 2016

Kudoa septempunctata is the causative agent of a food-borne disease associated with the ingestion of raw olive flounder. As the current qRT-PCR method for its detection is time-consuming, a rapid and simple method is required. Recently, a new real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method and an immunochromatography method, whose sensitivities are intended to be compatible with that designated in the official analytical method (10(5) spores/g olive flounder), have been developed. To validate these new methods, we performed an inter-laboratory study across seven laboratories. Both methods could not detect less than 10(4) spores/g; however, these methods were able to detect more than 10(5) spores/g in olive flounder samples. These results demonstrated that the sensitivities of these methods were compatible with the designated level in the official analytical method. We concluded that these new methods were acceptable as the screening methods for K. septempunctata.


PubMed | National Institute of Health science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin | Year: 2016

RNA interference via small interfering RNA (siRNA) has many potential therapeutic applications, and liposomal-based systems are useful for improving the pharmacokinetics of siRNAs, including their intracellular release and distribution. However, for the successful translation of this technology into clinical applications, it is important to understand how liposomal encapsulation changes the cellular uptake and immunostimulatory adverse effects of siRNAs. Here we evaluated the cellular uptake and innate immune activation by an immunostimulatory siRNA encapsulated within a liposome carrier in commercially available human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We found considerable lot-to-lot variation in cytokine production by the PBMCs. Flow cytometric analysis in conjunction with intracellular staining of tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) revealed that after treating PBMCs with the liposomal siRNA, approximately 5% of the cells produced TNF- and more than 90% of the TNF--producing cells were positive for CD14 expression. We also showed that peripheral blood CD14


PubMed | National Institute of Health science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin | Year: 2016

Genome editing has undergone rapid development during the last three years. It is anticipated that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for food purposes will be widely produced using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 (CRISPR)/Cas9 system in the near future. However, the Cas9 gene may then enter the genomes of GMOs for food if the breeding process is not strictly managed, which could lead to the Cas9 protein or associated peptides being produced within these organisms. A variety of peptides could theoretically be produced from the Cas9 gene by using open reading frames different from that of Cas9 in the GMOs. In this study, Cas9 and the peptides potentially encoded by Cas9 genes were studied regarding their immunogenicity, in terms of the digestibility of Cas9 and the homology of the peptides to food allergens. First, the digestibility and thermal stability of Cas9 were studied. Digestibility was tested with natural or heat-denatured Cas9 in simulated gastric fluid in vitro. The two types of Cas9 were digested rapidly. Cas9 was also gradually degraded during heat treatment. Second, the peptides potentially encoded by Cas9 genes were examined for their homology to food allergens. Specifically, an 8-mer exact match search and a sliding 80-mer window search were performed using allergen databases. One of the peptides was found to have homology with a food allergen.


PubMed | National Institute of Health science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Shokuhin eiseigaku zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan | Year: 2016

A GC-MS/MS method for determination of the rodenticide tetramethylenedisulfotetramine was developed. Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine was extracted from the sample with ethyl acetate in the presence of anhydrous sodium sulfate. Then, an aliquot of the extract was evaporated under vacuum, followed by acetonitrile/hexane partitioning, and cleanup with a tandem graphitized carbon/primary secondary amine (PSA) column, prior to GC-MS/MS analysis. The recoveries from 10 processed foods, all of which were fortified at 0.1 mg/kg, were in the range of 85-96%, and the relative standard deviations were less than 7%. The proposed method effectively removed co-extracted matrix components, and matrix effects were negligible in the GC-MS/MS analysis. In addition, no interfering peaks were found in the chromatograms of the blank samples at the retention time of tetramethylenedisulfotetramine, indicating that the method is highly selective. Overall results suggest that the proposed method is suitable for determining tetramethylenedisulfotetramine contained in processed foods.


PubMed | National Institute of Health science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Shokuhin eiseigaku zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan | Year: 2016

In Japan, a regulatory limit of 0.5 g/kg was set in 2015 for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk. A method using an immunochromatographic kit has been adopted as the official screening method, and criteria for the kit have been set. In order to confirm whether commercial immunochromatographic kits for detecting AFM1 satisfy these criteria, the performance of four kits was evaluated by performing spike-and-recovery experiments using AFM1-free milk samples and milk samples spiked at seven levels (100-700 ng/kg). With the two qualitative kits, determinations of blank samples were all negative and those of the samples spiked at 500 ng/kg were all positive. With the two quantitative kits, the measured values of the blank samples were all less than 100 ng/kg and the recoveries of the samples spiked at 500 ng/kg were all more than 70%. The detection limits of the two quantitative kits were both less than 100 ng/kg. These results indicate that all four immunochromatographic kits meet the criteria and can be used to screen AFM1 in milk.


PubMed | National Institute of Health science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of toxicological sciences | Year: 2017

3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a heat-induced food contaminant that has been shown to be a nongenotoxic renal carcinogen. Although the toxicity of 3-MCPD has been widely investigated for decades, there is a further concern that 3-MCPD might exert more potent toxicity in high-risk population with underlying diseases such as hyperlipidemia associated with obesity. In the present study, we performed a 13-week subchronic toxicity study for 3-MCPD using an obesity rat model to investigate the differences in susceptibility between obese and normal individuals. Male F344 and obese Zucker (lean and fatty) rats were administered 0, 9, 28.5, 90, 285, or 900 ppm 3-MCPD in drinking water for 13 weeks. 3-MCPD treatment decreased body weight gain, increased relative kidney weights, induced anemia, and induced epithelial cell necrosis in epididymal ducts in all 3 strains. The degrees of epididymal damage were higher in F344 and lean rats than in fatty rats, while renal toxicity was most potent in F344 rats and comparable in lean and fatty rats. In contrast, the hematology data indicated that anemia was worse in fatty rats than in F344 and lean rats, and a significant decrease in hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow was observed only in fatty rats. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was estimated to be 28.5 ppm in all 3 strains for 3-MCPD. These results suggested that obese Zucker rats may be more susceptible to 3-MCPD-dependent toxicity in the hematopoietic tissues than their lean counterparts.

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