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Yanggu, South Korea

Muhammad N.,University of Peshawar | Saeed M.,University of Peshawar | Gilani S.N.,Laboratories Complex Peshawar | ul Haq I.,National Institute of Health NIH | Khan H.,University of Peshawar
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2012

Purpose: To evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of n-hexane extract of the whole plant of Viola betonicifolia Sm, family: Violaceace. Methods: The n-hexane fraction of Viola betonicifolia (VBHF) was tested for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activities (carrageenan-induced and histamine-induced edema models) in BALB/c mice. Results: VBHF exhibited significant (p < 0.01) analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity at test doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. The analgesic effect of VBHF was dose-dependent in acetic acid pain model while the extract was a weak analgesic at the dose of 300 mg/kg in hot plate and tail immersion test. Diclofenac sodium and tramadol showed better analgesic properties to the extract. Analgesia was not antagonized by naloxone in the hot plate model. Anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced edema was 60.8 %; however, histamine-induced inflammation was not antogonised by the extract. Conclusions: The extract has some analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. This justifies its use in traditional medicine for pain of management. © Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved. Source


Muhammad N.,University of Peshawar | Saeed M.,University of Peshawar | Khan H.,Gandhara University | Haq I.,National Institute of Health NIH
Journal of Natural Medicines | Year: 2013

Viola betonicifolia (whole plant) has been used as a sedative and in various nervous disorders in Pakistani traditional medicines. The n-hexane extract of the whole plant of V. betonicifolia (HEVB) was investigated for neuropharmacological properties such as anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, sleep induction, antidepressant and sedative to ascertain its folk use. Anxiolytic activity was tested using the staircase test, while the muscle relaxing property of the extract was tested in various muscle relaxant paradigms, i.e. chimney test, traction test, rota rod and inclined plane. In anxiolytic and muscle relaxant tests, HEVB (0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 g/kg, i.p.), diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or distilled water (10 ml/kg i.p.) were administered 30, 60 and 90 min before performing the tests in mice. HEVB was also screened for a sleep-inducing effect. The antidepressant activity was determined by using the forced swimming test (FST), while line crossing in a special box was used for locomotor activity. HEVB showed a significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent anxiolytic action in the staircase test. In muscle relaxant paradigms, a dose-dependent muscle relaxation was observed. For the phenobarbitone sleep induction test, HEVB notably (P < 0.05) reduced the latency time and increased the total sleeping duration. However, HEVB was devoid of any antidepressant activity, while the movements of mice were reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in locomotor activity. The results suggest that HEVB has anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, sleep-inducing (sedative) activity and, thus, provides pharmacological justification for the use of this plant as a sedative and for the relief of various nervous disorders. © 2012 The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer. Source


Hayat K.,Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Khurshid A.,Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Khurshid A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Rafiq M.A.,Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Laser Physics Letters | Year: 2013

Nanoparticles are extensively used as efficient drug carriers in various biological studies. PEGylated barium manganate powder consisting of nanoparticles was synthesized using a hydrothermal technique. The nanoparticle morphology of the powder was confirmed via scanning electron microscopy. The average diameter of the nanoparticles was ∼90 nm. The x-ray diffraction pattern revealed that these nanoparticles consisted of single phase polycrystalline 2H-BaMnO3. The PEGylated BaMnO3 nanoparticles were loaded with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) to evaluate their drug carrying potential. The toxicity of these nanoparticles was tested against the Hep2c cell line and found to be suitable for biological applications. It was seen that the drug uptake was a million times higher in the case of encapsulation compared to a conventional drug delivery system. This new formulation may find extensive use in nanomedicine as a multidrug delivery system. © 2013 Astro Ltd. Source


Habib M.A.,Aga Khan University | Soofi S.,Aga Khan University | Sheraz A.,Aga Khan University | Bhatti Z.S.,Aga Khan University | And 6 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2015

Background: Polio eradication remains a challenge in Pakistan and the causes for the failure to eradicate poliomyelitis are complex. Undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, especially zinc deficiency, are major public health problems in Pakistan and could potentially affect the response to enteric vaccines, including oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Objective: To assess the impact of zinc supplementation among infants on immune response to oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Methods: A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted in newborns (aged 0-14 days). Subjects were assigned to either receive 10. mg of zinc or placebo supplementation daily for 18 weeks. Both groups received OPV doses at birth, at 6 weeks, 10 weeks and 14 weeks. Data was collected on prior immunization status, diarrheal episodes, breastfeeding practices and anthropometric measurements at recruitment and at 6 and 18 weeks. Blood samples were similarly collected to determine the antibody response to OPV and for micronutrient analysis. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between seroconversion and zinc status. Results: Overall, 404 subjects were recruited. At recruitment, seropositivity was already high for poliovirus (PV) serotype 1 (zinc: 91.1%; control: 90.5%) and PV2 (90.0%; 92.7%), with lower estimates for PV3 (70.0%; 64.8%). By week 18, the proportion of subjects with measured zinc levels in the normal range (i.e. ≥60. μg/dL) was significantly greater in the intervention group compared to the control group (71.9%; 27.4%; p< 0.001). No significant difference in seroconversion was demonstrated between the groups for PV1, PV2, or PV3. Conclusions: There was no effect of zinc supplementation on OPV immunogenicity. These conclusions were confirmed when restricting the analysis to those with measured higher zinc levels. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Bae J.S.,Sogang University | Cheong H.S.,SNP Genetics Inc. | Cheong H.S.,Seoul National University | Kim J.-H.,Catholic University of Korea | And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Unlike Caucasian populations, genetic factors contributing to the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are not well studied in Asian populations. In light of this, and the fact that copy number variation (CNV) is emerging as a new way to understand human genomic variation, the objective of this study was to identify type 2 diabetes-associated CNV in a Korean cohort. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using the Illumina HumanHap300 BeadChip (317,503 markers), genome-wide genotyping was performed to obtain signal and allelic intensities from 275 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 496 nondiabetic subjects (Total n = 771). To increase the sensitivity of CNV identification, we incorporated multiple factors using PennCNV, a program that is based on the hidden Markov model (HMM). To assess the genetic effect of CNV on T2DM, a multivariate logistic regression model controlling for age and gender was used. We identified a total of 7,478 CNVs (average of 9.7 CNVs per individual) and 2,554 CNV regions (CNVRs; 164 common CNVRs for frequency>1%) in this study. Although we failed to demonstrate robust associations between CNVs and the risk of T2DM, our results revealed a putative association between several CNVRs including chr15:45994758-45999227 (P = 8.6E-04, Pcorr = 0.01) and the risk of T2DM. The identified CNVs in this study were validated using overlapping analysis with the Database of Genomic Variants (DGV; 71.7% overlap), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The identified variations, which encompassed functional genes, were significantly enriched in the cellular part, in the membrane-bound organelle, in the development process, in cell communication, in signal transduction, and in biological regulation. Conclusion/Significance: We expect that the methods and findings in this study will contribute in particular to genome studies of Asian populations. © 2011 Bae et al. Source

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