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Zinedine A.,National Institute of Health INH | Meca G.,University of Valencia | Manes J.,University of Valencia | Font G.,University of Valencia
Food Control | Year: 2011

In this study, 64 samples of raw cereals (wheat, maize and barley) purchased from local markets in Rabat-Salé area from Morocco were analyzed for the occurrence of six emerging mycotoxins: four enniatins ENs (ENA, ENA1, ENB and ENB1), beauvericin (BEA) and fusaproliferin (FUS). Samples were extracted with a mixture of water/acetonitrile (85/15, v/v) by using an Ultra-turrax homogenizer. Mycotoxins were then identified and quantified with a liquid chromatography (LC) with diode array detector (DAD). Positive samples were confirmed with an LC-MS/MS. Analytical results showed that the frequencies of contamination of total samples with ENs, BEA and FUS were 50, 26.5 and 7.8%, respectively. ENA1 was the most common EN found with a percentage of contamination of 39%, levels ranged between 14 and 445 mg/kg. ENB contaminated 14 samples (21.8%) and levels ranged from 5 to 100 mg/kg. ENB1 was present in four samples (6.2%) and levels varied from 8 to 32 mg/kg. ENA was detected in only one sample with 34 mg/kg. BEA levels ranged from 1 to 59 mg/kg and FUS levels varied from 0.6 to 2 mg/kg. The present report is the first one ever drafted on the presence of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins in raw cereals available in Morocco. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Meca G.,University of Valencia | Zinedine A.,National Institute of Health INH | Blesa J.,University of Valencia | Font G.,University of Valencia | Manes J.,University of Valencia
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2010

In this work, 64 samples of cereals purchased from local markets in the Valencian community (Spain) were investigated for the presence of six emerging mycotoxins: enniatins ENs (ENA, ENA1, ENB and ENB1), beauvericin (BEA) and fusaproliferin (FUS). Samples were extracted with a mixture of water/acetonitrile (85/15, v/v) by using an Ultra-turrax homogenizer. Mycotoxins were then identified and quantified with a liquid chromatography (LC) with diode array detector (DAD). Positive samples were confirmed with an LC-MS/MS. Analytical Results showed that the frequencies of contamination of samples with ENs, BEA and FUS were 73.4%, 32.8% and 7.8%, respectively. ENA1 was the most mycotoxin found and levels ranged from 33.38 to 814.42. mg/kg. ENB levels ranged between 2.23 and 21.37. mg/kg. ENB1 levels varied from 4.34 to 45.94. mg/kg. All samples were free of ENA. BEA levels ranged from 0.51 to 11.78. mg/kg and FUS levels varied between 1.01 and 6.63. mg/kg. It could be concluded from this study that the high contamination levels found especially for ENs could be of a negative impact on the population. This is the first paper on the presence of emerging mycotoxins in cereals available in Spain. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Mahnine N.,National Institute of Health INH | Meca G.,University of Valencia | Fernandez-Franzon M.,University of Valencia | Manes J.,University of Valencia | Zinedine A.,National Institute of Health INH
Phytopathologia Mediterranea | Year: 2012

Summary. A total of 68 cereal products (48 breakfast cereals and 20 infant cereals) were collected from supermarkets and pharmacies in the Rabat-Salé area of Morocco and the content of fumonisins (FB1, FB2 and FB3) was analysed. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile/water (85/15, v/v) by using an ultra-turrax homogenizer. Mycotoxins were then identified and quantified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that fumonisins were detected in 20 samples (18 breakfast cereals and 2 infant cereals) with a frequency of contamination of 29.4% of total samples. The most contaminated products were cornflakes (maize) and breakfast cereals (rice, maize and cacao) with 10 and 4 positive samples respectively. The highest value was found in a breakfast cereal with 228 μg kg-1 of total fumonisins. © Firenze University Press. Source


Zinedine A.,National Institute of Health INH
Toxins | Year: 2010

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is secondary metabolite naturally produced in food and feed by toxigenic fungi, especially some Aspergillus species and Penicillium verucosum. OTA is one of the most studied mycotoxins and is of great interest due to its toxic effects on human and animals. OTA is produced in different food and feed matrices and contaminates a large range of base foods including cereals and derivatives, spices, dried fruits, wine and coffee, etc. Morocco, a North African country, has a climate characterized by high humidity and temperature, which probably favors the growth of molds. This contribution gives an overview of principal investigations about the presence of OTA in foods available in Morocco. Due to its toxicity, OTA presence is increasingly regulated worldwide, especially in countries of the European Union. However, up until now, no regulation limits were in force in Morocco, probably due to the ignorance of the health and economic problems resulting from OTA contamination. Finally, recommendations and future research directions are given required to assess the situation completely. © 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source


Ennouari A.,National Institute of Health INH | Ennouari A.,Mohammed V University | Sanchis V.,University of Lleida | Marin S.,University of Lleida | And 2 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2013

Eighty one (81) samples of durum wheat collected from seven areas from Morocco (Khmiset, Beni Mellal, Settat, Fès-Meknès, Skhirat-Témara, Tansift-El Haouz and Rabat-Salé) were surveyed for the presence of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Samples were extracted with water, the extracts were purified by immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) columns and DON was then identified and quantified with liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD). Analytical results showed that 9 out of 81 total samples (11.1%) were contaminated with DON. DON levels in positive samples ranged between 65 and 1310 μg/kg. The maximum contamination level of DON (1310 μg/kg) was found in a durum wheat sample from Rabat-Salé area, while the minimum value (65 μg/kg) was registered in a sample from Beni Mellal area. The mean DON level in positive samples was 502.1 ± 40.4 μg/kg. Only one previous work exists on DON contamination in Moroccan wheat samples. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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