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Di Nardo F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Ghetti G.,Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging INRCA | Fioretti S.,Marche Polytechnic University
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology | Year: 2013

Aim of the study was to identify the different modalities of activation of gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and tibialis anterior (TA) during gait at self-selected speed, by a statistical analysis of surface electromyographic signal from a large number (hundreds) of strides per subject. The analysis on fourteen healthy adults showed a large variability in the number of activation intervals, in their occurrence rate, and in the on-off instants, within different strides of the same walk. For each muscle, the assessment of the different modalities of activation (five for muscle) allowed to identify a single pattern, common for all the modalities and able to characterize the behavior of muscles during normal gait. The pattern of GL activity centered in two regions of the gait cycle: the transition between flat foot contact and push-off (observed in 100% of total strides) and the final swing (67.1 ± 15.9%). Two regions characterized also the pattern of TA activity: from pre-swing to following loading response (100%), and the mid-stance (30.5 ± 15.0%). This "normality" pattern represents the first attempt for the development in healthy young adults of a reference for dynamic EMG activity of GL and TA, in terms of variability of on-off muscular activity and occurrence rate during gait. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Di Nardo F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Mengarelli A.,Marche Polytechnic University | Ghetti G.,Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging INRCA | Fioretti S.,Marche Polytechnic University
IFMBE Proceedings | Year: 2014

Aim of the present study was to identify the different modalities of activation of tibialis anterior (TA) during gait at self-selected speed, by a statistical analysis of surface electromyographic signal from a large number (hundreds) of strides per subject. The analysis on ten healthy adults showed that TA is characterized by different activation modalities within different strides of the same walk. The most recurrent modality consists of three activations observed in 37.4±1.9% of total strides: at the beginning of gait cycle, around stance-to swing-transition and in the terminal swing. Further two modalities differ from the most recurrent one because of 1) the continuous activation during swing; 2) a further activity in the late mid-stance. The study of these different modalities of activation suggested that TA acts as pure ankle dorsi-flexor only in a small percentage (~20%) of total strides, where TA activity occurs in the simpler modality. The increase in the complexity of the recruitment of the muscle introduces an uncommon activity during mid-stance, which does not occur for the flexion of the ankle but is related to the activity of the TA as a foot invertor muscle. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014. Source


Di Nardo F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Mengarelli A.,Marche Polytechnic University | Maranesi E.,Marche Polytechnic University | Maranesi E.,Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging INRCA | And 2 more authors.
Biomedical Signal Processing and Control | Year: 2015

Abstract The present study was designed to achieve a comprehensive analysis of gender-related differences in the myoelectric activity of lower limb muscles during normal walking at self-selected speed and cadence, in terms of muscle activation patterns and occurrence frequencies. To this aim, statistical gait analysis (SGA) of surface EMG signal from tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF) and vastus lateralis (VL) was performed in 11 female (F-group) and 11 male (M-group) age-matched healthy young adults. SGA is a recent methodology performing a statistical characterization of gait, by averaging spatio-temporal and sEMG-based parameters over numerous strides. Findings showed that males and females walk at the same comfortable speed, despite the significantly lower height and higher cadence detected in females. No significant differences in muscle onset/offset were detected between groups. The analysis of occurrence frequencies of muscle activity showed no significant differences in BF and RF, between groups. Conversely, in F-group, compared with M-group, GL, TA and VL showed a significantly higher occurrence frequency in the modalities with a high number of activations, and a significantly lower occurrence frequency in the modalities with a low number of activations. These findings indicate a propensity of females for a more complex recruitment of TA, GL and VL during walking, compared to males. The observed differences recommend the suitability of developing electromyographic databases, separated for males and females. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Cardelli M.,Italian Institute of Technology | Giacconi R.,Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging INRCA | Malavolta M.,Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging INRCA | Provinciali M.,Italian Institute of Technology
Current Drug Targets | Year: 2016

Endogenous retroelements (ERs) represent nearly half of the human genome. Considered up to recent years as “functionless” DNA sequences, they are now known to be involved in important cellular functions such as stress response and generation of non coding regulatory RNAs. Moreover, an increasing amount of data supports the idea of ERs as key players in cellular senescence and in different senescence-related pathogenic cellular processes, including those leading to inflammation, cancer and major age-related multifactorial diseases. The involvement of ERs in these biological mechanisms can suggest new therapeutic strategies in neoplasms, inflammatory/autoimmune diseases and in different age-related pathologies, such as macular degeneration, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and major age-related neurodegenerative disorders. The therapeutic approaches which can be suggested range from a set of well-known, common drugs that have been shown to modulate ERs activity, to immune therapy against ER-derived tumor antigens, to more challenging strategies such as those based on anti-ERs RNA interference. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers. Source


Di Nardo F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Mengarelli A.,Marche Polytechnic University | Strazza A.,Marche Polytechnic University | Maranesi E.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 3 more authors.
IFMBE Proceedings | Year: 2016

The aim of the study was the quantitative assessment of the concomitant recruitment of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) in a group of 11 healthy young adults during walking. To this aim, Statistical gait analysis, a recent methodology performing a statistical characterization of gait by averaging spatial-temporal and surface-EMG-based parameters over numerous strides, was performed in each subject. Superimpositions between RF and VL activity were detected from terminal swing to the following loading response in 99.0±25.8% of strides. This superimposition could be intended as a synergic action of the two muscles for controlling weight bearing, to assist knee extension and to control knee flexion. A further infrequent (<5% of the strides) superimposition was detected in mid and terminal stance, suggesting that the two muscles are working on different joints: RF activity could be interpreted as active participation in hip flexion, while VL activity as the main contribution in modulating rapid knee flexion. These findings have the merit to provide a novel data on the variability of the reciprocal role of RF and VL during walking, allowing a deeper insight in the physiological mechanisms that regulate the knee flexion/extension. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016. Source

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