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Kodama Y.,National Institute of Genetics | Shumway M.,U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information | Leinonen R.,European Bioinformatics Institute
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

New generation sequencing platforms are producing data with significantly higher throughput and lower cost. A portion of this capacity is devoted to individual and community scientific projects. As these projects reach publication, raw sequencing datasets are submitted into the primary next-generation sequence data archive, the Sequence Read Archive (SRA). Archiving experimental data is the key to the progress of reproducible science. The SRA was established as a public repository for next-generation sequence data as a part of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC). INSDC is composed of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ). The SRA is accessible at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra from NCBI, at www.ebi.ac.uk/ena from EBI and at trace.ddbj.nig.ac.jp from DDBJ. In this article, we present the content and structure of the SRA and report on updated metadata structures, submission file formats and supported sequencing platforms. We also briefly outline our various responses to the challenge of explosive data growth. © The Author(s) 2011.

Shimizu H.,National Institute of Genetics
International Journal of Developmental Biology | Year: 2012

Since the pioneering work of Ethel Browne (1909) who demonstrated for the first time the concept of organizer activity, i.e. the potency of an apical Hydra tissue to induce a secondary axis when transplanted onto a host, Hydra flourished as a fruitful model system for developmental studies. Over the next 60 years this efficient transplantation approach identified graded biological activities along the body column of Hydra named Head Activation and Head Inhibition. These properties inspired theoretical modelers including Lewis Wolpert, Alfred Gierer and Hans Meinhardt to propose models for morphogenesis, respectively the positional information (1969) and reaction-diffusion (1972) models. In 1973, Tsutomu Sugiyama and Toshitaka Fujisawa initiated in Mishima a unique project to analyze the properties of Hydra strains with distinct morphological and developmental characters. To this end, they collected in several areas of Japan multiple Hydra strains that they subsequently characterized and crossed. They also established a lateral transplantation strategy that was much more powerful than the previous ones, as it combined quantitative measurements with cellular analyses thanks to the chimera procedures developed by Campbell and colleagues. Indeed this approach provided a paradigm to quantify in any morphological phenotype the Head Activation and Head Inhibition levels along the body column. In this article, I review the various strains identified by Sugiyama and colleagues, the principles and the main results deduced from the quantitative lateral transplantation strategy. In addition, I briefly discuss the relevance of this approach in the era of molecular biology. © UBC Press.

Goshima G.,Nagoya University | Kimura A.,National Institute of Genetics
Current Opinion in Cell Biology | Year: 2010

The structure, dynamics, and mechanics of mitotic and meiotic spindles have been progressively elucidated through the advancements in microscopic technology, identification of the genes involved, and construction of theoretical frameworks. Here, we review recent works that have utilized quantitative image analysis to advance our understanding of the complex spindle structure of animal cells. In particular, we discuss how microtubules (MTs) are nucleated and distributed inside the spindle. Accumulating evidence supports the presence of MT-dependent MT generation within the spindle. This mechanism would produce dense arrays of intraspindle MTs with various lengths, which may contribute to efficient spindle assembly and stabilize the metaphase spindle. RNA interference (RNAi) screens with quantitative image analysis led to the identification of the augmin complex that plays a key role in this MT generation process. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Araki H.,National Institute of Genetics
Current Opinion in Cell Biology | Year: 2010

Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) is essential for the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication. CDK phosphorylates two yeast replication proteins, Sld2 and Sld3, both of which bind to another replication protein, Dpb11 when phosphorylated. These interactions are essential and are the minimal requirements for CDK activation of chromosomal DNA replication. This review discusses how these phosphorylation-dependent interactions initiate DNA replication through the formation of the pre-loading complex (pre-LC) and its interaction with phosphorylated Sld3 on replication origins. These steps are further regulated by multisite phosphorylation of Sld2. Sld3, on the other hand, must be turned over to reassociate with origins. Pol e{open} functions as a component of the pre-LC as well as a replicative DNA polymerase at replication forks. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Nakamura Y.,National Institute of Genetics | Cochrane G.,European Bioinformatics Institute | Karsch-Mizrachi I.,U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2013

The International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC; http://www.insdc.org), one of the longest-standing global alliances of biological data archives, captures, preserves and provides comprehensive public domain nucleotide sequence information. Three partners of the INSDC work in cooperation to establish formats for data and metadata and protocols that facilitate reliable data submission to their databases and support continual data exchange around the world. In this article, the INSDC current status and update for the year of 2012 are presented. Among discussed items of international collaboration meeting in 2012, BioSample database and changes in submission are described as topics. © The Author(s) 2012.

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