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North Bethesda, MD, United States

Tong E.K.,University of California at Davis | Fagan P.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Cooper L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Canto M.,National Institute of General Medical science | And 12 more authors.
Nicotine and Tobacco Research

Introduction: In 2005, the National Cancer Institute funded the Community Networks Program (CNP), which aimed to reduce cancer health disparities in minority racial/ethnic and underserved groups through community-based participatory research, education, and training. The purpose of this study was to describe the CNP model and their tobacco-related work in community-based research, education, and training using a tobacco disparities research framework. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive review of the CNP tobacco-related activities including publications, published abstracts, research activities, trainee pilot studies, policy-related activities, educational outreach, and reports produced from 2005-2009. Two authors categorized the tobaccorelated activities and publications within the framework. Results: Although there was no mandate to address tobacco, the CNPs produced 103 tobaccorelated peer-reviewed publications, which reflects the largest proportion (12%) of all CNP cancerrelated publications. Selected publications and research activities were most numerous under the framework areas "Psychosocial Research," "Surveillance," "Epidemiology," and "Treatment of Nicotine Addiction." Thirteen CNPs participated in tobacco control policymaking in mainstream efforts that affected their local community and populations, and 24 CNPs conducted 1147 tobacco-related educational outreach activities. CNP activities that aimed to build research and infrastructure capacity included nine tobacco-related pilot projects representing 16% of all CNP cancer-related pilot projects, and 17 publications acknowledging leveraged partnerships with other organizations, a strategy encouraged by the CNP. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. Source

Brown J.,National Institute of General Medical science | Grudzen C.,New York University | Kyriacou J.,Northwestern University | Obermeyer Z.,Harvard University | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Emergency Medicine

To identify research priorities and appropriate resources and to establish the infrastructure required to address the emergency care of patients with cancer, the National Institutes of Health's National Cancer Institute and the Office of Emergency Care Research sponsored a one-day workshop, "Cancer and Emergency Medicine: Setting the Research Agenda," in March 2015 in Bethesda, MD. Participants included leading researchers and clinicians in the fields of oncology, emergency medicine, and palliative care, and representatives from the National Institutes of Health. Attendees were charged with identifying research opportunities and priorities to advance the understanding of the emergency care of cancer patients. Recommendations were made in 4 areas: the collection of epidemiologic data, care of the patient with febrile neutropenia, acute events such as dyspnea, and palliative care in the emergency department setting. © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Source

Faupel-Badger J.M.,National Institute of General Medical science | Nelson D.E.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Izmirlian G.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Ross K.H.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 4 more authors.

The purpose of this study was to examine the career paths of alumni from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP), a structured in-house postdoctoral training program of 3-4 years duration, and specifically what proportion of the alumni were currently performing cancer prevention-related activities. The analyses here included 119 CPFP alumni and 85 unsuccessful CPFP applicants, all of whom completed postdoctoral training between 1987-2011 and are currently employed. Postdoctoral training experiences and current career outcomes data were collected via online surveys. Differences between groups were assessed using chi-square and Fisher's exact test p-values and subsequent regression analyses adjusted for differences between the groups. Compared to 15.3%of unsuccessful CPFP applicants, 52.1%of CPFP alumni (odds ratio [OR] = 4.99, 95% confidence interval [95% CI): 1.91-13.0) were currently spending the majority of their time working in cancer prevention. Among those doing any cancer prevention-focused work, 54.3%of CPFP alumni spent the majority of their time performing cancer prevention research activities when compared to 25.5%of unsuccessful applicants (OR = 4.26, 95% CI: 1.38-13.2). In addition to the independent effect of the NCI CPFP, scientific discipline, and employment sector were also associated with currently working in cancer prevention and involvement in cancer prevention research-related activities. These results from a structured postdoctoral training program are relevant not only to the cancer prevention community but also to those interested in evaluating alignment of postdoctoral training programs with available and desired career paths more broadly. Source

Ryan B.M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Faupel-Badger J.M.,National Institute of General Medical science
Seminars in Oncology

The hallmarks of premalignant lesions were first described in the 1970s, a time when relatively little was known about the molecular underpinnings of cancer. Yet it was clear there must be opportunities to intervene early in carcinogenesis. A vast array of molecular information has since been uncovered, with much of this stemming from studies of existing cancer or cancer models. Here, examples of how an understanding of cancer biology has informed cancer prevention studies are highlighted and emerging areas that may have implications for the field of cancer prevention research are described. A note of caution accompanies these examples, in that while there are similarities, there are also fundamental differences between the biology of premalignant lesions or premalignant conditions and invasive cancer. These differences must be kept in mind, and indeed leveraged, when exploring potential cancer prevention measures. Source

Godfried Sie C.,Lehigh University | Hesler S.,Lehigh University | Hesler S.,Eli Lilly and Company | Maas S.,Lehigh University | And 2 more authors.
FEBS Letters

The selective deamination of adenosines (A) to inosines (I) in messenger RNAs (mRNAs) can alter the encoded protein's amino acid sequence, with often critical consequences on protein stability, localization, and/or function. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) supports cell-adhesion and stimulates fibroblast proliferation with IGF and insulin. It exists in both proteolytically processed and unprocessed forms with altered cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Here we show that editing of IGFBP7 transcripts impacts the protein's susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage, thus providing a means for a cell to modulate its functionality through A-to-I RNA editing. Crown Copyright © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical society. All rights reserved. Source

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