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Candore G.,University of Palermo | Caruso C.,University of Palermo | Jirillo E.,National Institute of Gastroenterology | Magrone T.,University of Bari | Vasto S.,University of Palermo
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2010

Nowadays, people are living much longer than they used to do, however they are not free from ageing. Ageing, an inexorable intrinsic process that affects all cells, tissues, organs and individuals, is a post-maturational process that, due to a diminished homeostasis and increased organism frailty, causes a reduction of the response to environmental stimuli and, in general, is associated to an increased predisposition to illness and death. However, the high incidence of death due to infectious, cardiovascular and cancer diseases underlies a common feature in these pathologies that is represented by dysregulation of both instructive and innate immunity. Several studies show that a low-grade systemic inflammation characterizes ageing and that inflammatory markers are significant predictors of mortality in old humans. This pro-inflammatory status of the elderly underlies biological mechanisms responsible for physical function decline and agerelated diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis are initiated or worsened by systemic inflammation. Understanding of the ageing process should have a prominent role in new strategies for extending the health old population. Accordingly, as extensively discussed in the review and in the accompanying related papers, investigating ageing pathophysiology, particularly disentangling agerelated low grade inflammation, is likely to provide important clues about how to develop drugs that can slow or delay ageing. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Tominaga T.,Kitasato University | Tominaga T.,Vino Science Japan Inc. | Kawaguchi K.,Iwaki Meisei University | Kanesaka M.,Kitasato University | And 5 more authors.
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology | Year: 2010

We investigated the inhibitory effects of fermented grape marc (FGM), lyophilized fine powder of skin, and seeds of Vitis vinifera Koshu grape prepared by fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum, on type-I allergic responses in mice. Repeated oral administration of FGM, but not non-fermented grape marc (GM), to BALB/c mice primed with ovalbumin (OVA) resulted in a significant reduction of serum IgE levels, compared with those of immunized controls. After OVA challenge, increased numbers of eosinophils in bronchial alveolar lavage fluids (BALF) significantly decreased by treatment with FGM but not with GM. For passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction, BALB/c mice received intradermal sensitization with anti-OVA IgE serum and were challenged intravenously with OVA containing Evans blue at 24h after IgE sensitization. Oral administration of FGM at 30min before OVA challenge significantly suppressed the PCA reaction. On the other hand, Lactobacillus alone and non-fermented GM did not show any suppressive effects. Interestingly, FGM samples prepared from grapes for red wine, such as Negroamaro (rich in resveratrol) or Tannat (rich in oligomeric procyanidin), did not suppress the reaction. These results indicate that oral administration of FGM, prepared from Koshu grape for white wine but not from grapes for red wine, could suppress both phases of type-I allergic responses. A fraction extractable with acetone was responsible for the suppressive effects of FGM. © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Kaneko M.,Kitasato University | Kanesaka M.,Kitasato University | Yoneyama M.,Kitasato University | Tominaga T.,Vino Science Japan Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology | Year: 2010

To investigate the antiallergic effects of fermented grape marc from Negroamaro (N-FGM), we examined antigen (Ag)-induced degranulation of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. Among supernatants of N-FGM suspensions in water, ethanol, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), supernatants of DMSO-suspended N-FGM but not of nonfermented Negroamaro grape marc (N-GM) markedly suppressed the Ag-induced degranulation and phosphorylation of Syk in RBL-2H3 cells. Supernatants of DMSO-suspended N-FGM did not reduce the expression of FcεRI on RBL-2H3 cells. Analyses of supernatants of N-FGM suspensions in water, ethanol, and DMSO by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed higher amounts of quercetin in supernatants of DMSO-suspended N-FGM than those in the other supernatants. Quercetin also suppressed the Ag-induced degranulation and phosphorylation of Syk but did not reduce the expression of FcεRI on RBL-2H3 cells. These results suggest that inhibition of the Ag-induced degranulation and Syk phosphorylation by N-FGM might be due to the action of quercetin, as an active component in N-FGM. © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Pizarro T.T.,Case Western Reserve University | Pastorelli L.,Case Western Reserve University | Pastorelli L.,Gastroenterology and Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Unit | Pastorelli L.,University of Milan | And 9 more authors.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases | Year: 2011

The SAMP1/YitFc mouse strain represents a model of Crohn's disease (CD)-like ileitis that is ideal for investigating the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation. Different from the vast majority of animal models of colitis, the ileal-specific phenotype characteristic of SAMP1/YitFc mice occurs spontaneously, without genetic, chemical, or immunological manipulation. In addition, SAMP1/YitFc mice possess remarkable similarities to the human condition with regard to disease location, histologic features, incidence of extraintestinal manifestations, and response to conventional therapies. SAMP1/YitFc mice also display a well-defined time course of a predisease state and phases of acute and chronic ileitis. As such, the SAMP1/YitFc model is particularly suitable for elucidating pathways that precede the clinical phenotype that may lead to preventive, and therefore more efficacious, intervention with the natural course of disease, or alternatively, for the development of therapeutic strategies directed against chronic, established ileitis. In this review we summarize important contributions made by our group and others that uncover potential mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CD using this unique murine model of chronic intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Fuglem B.,Institute of Basic science and Aquatic Medicine | Jirillo E.,University of Bari | Jirillo E.,National Institute of Gastroenterology | Bjerkas I.,Institute of Basic science and Aquatic Medicine | And 6 more authors.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2010

Antigen uptake has been shown to occur in the teleost intestine, but so far, limited information is available on the distribution and nature of cells involved in the process, and M cells, known for their antigen-sampling abilities in mammals, have not been identified. Here, different intestinal segments from salmonid fish were exposed to gold-BSA to identify antigen-sampling cells. Sections from exposed intestine were examined by light and electron microscopy. Uptake of gold-BSA was restricted to very few dendritic-like cells and to a limited number of epithelial cells located in the mucosal folds in the second segment of the mid-intestine. Gold-positive epithelial cells displayed diverging and electron-dense microvilli with channels intruding into the cytoplasm. A lectin binding experiment demonstrated the presence of cells with mammalian M-cell characteristics in the identical regions. As the identified epithelial cells shared some morphological similarities with immature mammalian M cells, this phenotype may represent evolutionary early antigen-sampling enterocytes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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