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Pena J.E.,University of Florida | Weihman S.W.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | McLean S.,University of Florida | Cave R.D.,University of Florida | And 7 more authors.
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2015

The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), due to its association with Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae), a pathogen that causes laurel wilt, is considered one of the most damaging pests of Persea species (Laurales: Lauraceae) including avocado. Currently, there is no satisfactory method to control this pest. Biological control is being examined as an additional tool to be used to lower the pest population and slow its spread. The objective of this study was to determine the natural enemy community associated with X. glabratus in Florida and Taiwan by using 3 methods: 1) field-collected wood naturally infested with X. glabratus (Florida), 2) bolts of avocado artificially infested with X. glabratus (Florida) and 3) direct collection of natural enemies from a trap area baited with infested wood and known X. glabratus lures (Florida and Taiwan). Among the predacious insects, there were 8 species of Laemophloeidae, an unidentified species of Staphylinidae, Microsicus spp. (Zopheridae), and Europs sp. (Monotomidae) (all Coleoptera). Among the parasitoids, hymenopterans of the families Braconidae, Eulophidae, Pteromalidae, Encyrtidae, Eupelmidae, and Bethylidae emerged from wood containing various species of Scolytinae. However, the only specimens that emerged from logs in which X. glabratus was present were Bethylidae, Braconidae, Encyrtidae (perhaps Closterocerus sp.), and Scelionidae. Four hymenopteran species were collected using attractants in Florida and Taiwan. However, more studies are needed to clarify their role as natural enemies of X. glabratus. © 2015, BioOne. All rights reserved. Source

De La Cruz Quiroz R.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Roussos S.,Institute Mediterraneen Of Biodiversite Et D Ecologie Marine Et Continentale | Hernandez D.,Antonio Narro Agrarian Autonomous University | Rodriguez R.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | And 2 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology | Year: 2015

In recent years, production and use of bio-pesticides have increasing and replacing some synthetic chemical pesticides applied to food commodities. In this review, biological control is focused as an alternative, to some synthetic chemical treatments that cause environmental, human health, and food quality risks. In addition, several phytopathogenic microorganisms have developed resistance to some of these synthetic chemicals and become more difficult to control. Worldwide, the bio-pesticides market is growing annually at a rate of 44% in North America, 20% in Europe and Oceania, 10% in Latin and South American countries and 6% in Asia. Use of agro-industrial wastes and solid-state fermentation (SSF) technology offers an alternative to bio-pesticide production with advantages versus conventional submerged fermentations, as reduced cost and energy consumption, low production of residual water and high stability products. In this review, recent data about state of art regarding bio-pesticides production under SSF on agroindustrial wastes will be discussed. SSF can be defined as a microbial process that generally occurs on solid material in the absence of free water. This material has the ability to absorb water with or without soluble nutrients, since the substrate must have water to support the microorganism-s growth and metabolism. Changes in water content are analyzed in order to select the conditions for a future process, where water stress can be combined with the best spore production conditions, obtaining in this way an inexpensive biotechnological option for modern agriculture in developing countries. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Manzanilla-Pech C.I.V.,Animal Breeding and Genomics Center | Manzanilla-Pech C.I.V.,Wageningen University | Manzanilla-Pech C.I.V.,National Institute of Forestry | Veerkamp R.F.,Animal Breeding and Genomics Center | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

To include feed-intake-related traits in the breeding goal, accurate estimates of genetic parameters of feed intake, and its correlations with other related traits (i.e., production, conformation) are required to compare different options. However, the correlations between feed intake and conformation traits can vary depending on the population. Therefore, the objective was to estimate genetic correlations between 6 feed-intake-related traits and 7 conformation traits within dairy cattle from 2 countries, the Netherlands (NL) and the United States (US). The feed-intake-related traits were dry matter intake (DMI), residual feed intake (RFI), milk energy output (MilkE), milk yield (MY), body weight (BW), and metabolic body weight (MBW). The conformation traits were stature (ST), chest width (CW), body depth (BD), angularity (ANG), rump angle (RA), rump width (RW), and body condition score (BCS). Feed intake data were available for 1,665 cows in NL and for 1,920 cows in US, from 83 nutritional experiments (48 in NL and 35 in US) conducted between 1991 and 2011 in NL and between 2007 and 2013 in US. Additional conformation records from relatives of the animals with DMI records were added to the database, giving a total of 37,241 cows in NL and 28,809 in US with conformation trait information. Genetic parameters were estimated using bivariate animal model analyses. The model included the following fixed effects for feed-intake-related traits: location by experiment-ration, age of cow at calving modeled with a second order polynomial by parity class, location by year-season, and days in milk, and these fixed effects for the conformation traits: herd by classification date, age of cow at classification, and lactation stage at classification. Both models included additive genetic and residual random effects. The highest estimated genetic correlations involving DMI were with CW in both countries (NL = 0.45 and US = 0.61), followed by ST (NL = 0.33 and US = 0.57), BD (NL = 0.26 and US = 0.49), and BCS (NL = 0.24 and US = 0.46). The MilkE and MY were moderately correlated with ANG in both countries (0.33 and 0.47 in NL, and 0.36 and 0.48 in US). Finally, BW was highly correlated with CW (0.77 in NL and 0.84 in US) and with BCS (0.83 in NL and 0.85 in US). Feed-intake-related traits were moderately to highly genetically correlated with conformation traits (ST, CW, BD, and BCS) in both countries, making them potentially useful as predictors of DMI. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Bautista-Garfias C.R.,National Institute of Forestry | Rios-Flores E.,Mexico State University | Garcia-Rubio V.G.,Mexico State University
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2011

The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of Lactobacillus casei and a commercial mixed combination of fruit juice that included Garcinia mangostana fruit extract on body weight gain from 7 to 90 days of age, on the antibody response 23 days after vaccination against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and on the mortality in fighting roosters. Fifty-four 7-day-old birds were randomly distributed into three groups (treated with L. casei, G. mangostana, and saline solution [LC, GM, and SS groups, respectively]) of 18 animals each; all birds were orally treated daily. At 60 and 90 days, the LC group showed the highest body weight gain compared with the other two groups (P<.01). The mean levels of antibody to NDV were significantly higher in the GM group compared with the LC and SS groups (P<.05). Throughout the study the percentages of mortality were 5.55%, 0%, and 22.22% for the LC, GM, and SS groups, respectively. The results indicate that L. casei and the commercial mangosteen dietary supplement intake, compared with the control group, induce beneficial effects in fighting roosters-L. casei on weight gain and the commercial mixed combination of fruit juice with G. mangostana fruit extract on humoral immune response-and both showed none or very low mortality. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Islas-Osuna M.A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Stephens-Camacho N.A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Contreras-Vergara C.A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Rivera-Dominguez M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science | Year: 2010

Problem statement: Mango is a tropical fruit that ripens very quickly; for this reason, there has been a continuous effort to develop postharvest technologies to extend its shelf life and quality. Among them, 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) is widely used because it inhibits the action of ethylene receptors. Approach: Changes in physicochemical parameters, bioactive compounds and cell wall degrading activities were evaluated during storage and ripening of fresh whole mangoes treated with 1-MCP (750 nL L-1). Mature-green mangoes, cultivar Kent, untreated or treated with 1-MCP were evaluated for external quality, phytochemicals, Polygalacturonase (PG) and Pectin Methylesterase (PME) enzymatic activities during storage at 20°C for 2 weeks. Results: Concentration of ascorbic acid decreased during fruit ripening but 1-MCP-treated mangoes had reduced losses. Polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase activities were reduced in the treated fruits as compared to untreated mangoes. Small changes in b-carotene were observed between treated and untreated fruits. Conclusion: 1-MCP affected the ripening process in "Kent" mango, reducing losses of ascorbic acid, this treatment is justified since it helps to maintain mango's nutritional value during its shelf life. © 2010 Science Publications. Source

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