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Kim R.J.,Chonnam National University | Kim H.J.,Chonnam National University | Kim H.J.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Shim D.,Chonnam National University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2016

Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) catalyzes the last step of triacylglycerol breakdown, which is the hydrolysis of monoacylglycerol (MAG) to fatty acid and glycerol. Arabidopsis harbors over 270 genes annotated as 'lipase', the largest class of acyl lipid metabolism genes that have not been characterized experimentally. In this study, computational modeling suggested that 16 Arabidopsis putative MAGLs (AtMAGLs) have a three-dimensional structure that is similar to a human MAGL. Heterologous expression and enzyme assays indicated that 11 of the 16 encoded proteins indeed possess MAG lipase activity. Additionally, AtMAGL4 displayed hydrolase activity with lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) substrates and AtMAGL1 and 2 utilized LPE as a substrate. All recombinant AtMAGLs preferred MAG substrates with unsaturated fatty acids over saturated fatty acids and AtMAGL8 exhibited the highest hydrolase activities with MAG containing 20:1 fatty acids. Except for AtMAGL4, -14 and -16, all AtMAGLs showed similar activity with both sn-1 and sn-2 MAG isomers. Spatial, temporal and stress-induced expression of the 16 AtMAGL genes was analyzed by transcriptome analyses. AtMAGL:eYFP fusion proteins provided initial evidence that AtMAGL1, -3, -6, -7, -8, -11, -13, -14 and -16 are targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum and/or Golgi network, AtMAGL10, -12 and -15 to the cytosol and AtMAGL2, -4 and -5 to the chloroplasts. Furthermore, AtMAGL8 was associated with the surface of oil bodies in germinating seeds and leaves accumulating oil bodies. This study provides the broad characterization of one of the least well-understood groups of Arabidopsis lipid-related enzymes and will be useful for better understanding their roles in planta. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Lee C.-B.,Korea Green Promotion Agency | Chun J.-H.,National Institute of Forest Science
Folia Geobotanica | Year: 2016

Understanding biodiversity patterns and the underlying drivers along environmental gradients is a central topic in ecology and biogeography. Despite intensive research devoted to the topic, it is poorly known how the diversity components (α-, β- and γ-) are forming the diversity patterns along gradients and whether they differ when taking individual life forms into account. In the present study, we evaluated α-, β- and γ-diversity for all, woody and herbaceous plants in relation to regional area, topographic heterogeneity, vegetation type diversity, climate and primary productivity along an extensive elevation gradient in the temperate forests of South Korea. We also examined the effect of latitude on the diversity patterns. We found differences in patterns among the diversity components as well as life forms. Habitat heterogeneity, represented by topographic heterogeneity and vegetation type diversity, was the most important driver of α- and γ-diversity, and the combined effects of habitat heterogeneity and climate were important for β-diversity of the individual life forms. Diversity patterns did not show significant relationships with latitude. Our results suggest that diversity patterns may differ among diversity components and life forms, and that habitat heterogeneity and climate along an extensive temperate elevation gradient are important biodiversity drivers in South Korea. At the same time, the effect of the elevation gradient may not be paralleled in relation to the latitudinal gradient, and this fact deserves attention in future studies. © 2016 Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic

Lee C.-B.,Korea Green Promotion Agency | Chun J.-H.,National Institute of Forest Science
Forests | Year: 2016

Understanding patterns of biodiversity and their drivers along environmental gradients is one of the central topics in ecology. However, whether diversity patterns along environmental gradients differ among diversity components as well as life forms and what kind of variables control or interact to shape the diversity patterns are poorly known. This study scrutinized the distribution patterns of three plant groups with four diversity indices and evaluated the effects of regional area, topography, topographic heterogeneity, climate, primary productivity, vegetation structure diversity and vegetation type diversity along an extensive elevational gradient on the Baekdudaegan Mountains in South Korea. Different elevational patterns, including hump-shaped, reversed hump-shaped, increasing, multimodal and no relationship, were observed among both the diversity indices and the plant groups. Regional area, habitat heterogeneity and climate were included to explain most of the elevational diversity patterns. In particular, habitat heterogeneity was the most important variable for explaining the patterns of diversity. The results suggest that patterns of elevational diversity may differ not only among plant groups but also among diversity indices and that such patterns are primarily caused by habitat heterogeneity in the Baekdudaegan Mountains because more heterogeneous and diverse habitats can support more coexisting species. © 2016 by the authors.

PubMed | Gyeongsang National University and National Institute of Forest Science
Type: | Journal: Behavioural brain research | Year: 2016

The ameliorating effects of the ethyl acetate fraction from Dendropanax morbifera (EFDM) on cognitive impairment in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice were examined by measuring its possible pharmacological activities. Administration of EFDM (20 and 50mg/kg body weight) in HFD-induced diabetic mice significantly improved glucose tolerance status in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). In animal experiments using Y-maze, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests, the cognitive and behavioral disorders in HFD-induced diabetic mice were considerably recovered by regulating cholinergic systems, including acetylcholine (ACh) levels and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, and antioxidant systems, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), oxidized GSH, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Furthermore, HFD-induced abnormal activity of mitochondria were also significantly protected by the improvement of the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) signaling pathway with phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK), phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (p-IRS), serine/threonine protein kinase (Akt), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau). Finally, rutin, orientin, isoorientin, and luteolin-7-O-rutinoside as the main phenolics of EFDM were identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS(2)). These findings suggest that EFDM may have an effect as a multiple preventive substances to reduce diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction.

PubMed | Gyeongsang National University, Kyung Hee University and National Institute of Forest Science
Type: | Journal: Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity | Year: 2017

The antiamnesic effect of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-diCQA) as the main phenolic compound in

Jung J.-K.,Seoul National University | Jung J.-K.,National Institute of Forest Science | Lee J.-H.,Seoul National University
Ecological Research | Year: 2016

In fragmented landscapes, ecological processes may be significantly influenced by edge effects, but few data are available for edge effects across forest–farmland edges. We investigated patterns of species richness, abundance, and species composition in ground beetles across forest–farm edges in two different agro-forest landscapes in Korea. Nine and five sites were selected from Hwaseong, a fragmented landscape, in 2011 and 2012, respectively, while eight sites were selected from Hoengseong, a relatively well-protected landscape, in 2012. Ground beetles were collected by pitfall trapping. Species richness was higher in the surrounding habitat than in the forest interior or edge in both Hwaseong and Hoengseong. However, in Hwaseong, species richness of the forest edge was similar to that of the forest interior, while in Hoengseong forest edge species richness was intermediate between that of the forest interior and surrounding areas. In addition, non-metric multidimensional scaling based on the combined data of both locations showed that the species composition of ground beetles in the forest edge was more similar to that of the forest interior than the surrounding areas, although some open-habitat species occurred at the forest edges. Three characteristic groups (forest specialists, edge-associated species, and open-habitat species) of ground beetle species were detected by indicator value analysis. In our study, ground beetle assemblages differed in the forest edges of two agro-forest landscapes, suggesting that the edge effect on biota can be influenced by landscape structure. © 2016 The Ecological Society of Japan

PubMed | Seoul National University, Seoul National University of Science and Technology and National Institute of Forest Science
Type: | Journal: Bioresource technology | Year: 2016

The objectives of this research were to produce a levulinic acid by two-step acid-catalyzed treatment of Quercus mongolica and to investigate the effect of treatment parameter (reaction temperature range: 100-230C; sulfuric acid (SA) concentration range: 0-2%) on the levulinic acid yield. After 1

Kim K.M.,National Institute of Forest Science
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2016

Traditional field methods for measuring tree heights are often too costly and time consuming. An alternative remote sensing approach is to measure tree heights from digital stereo photographs which is more practical for forest managers and less expensive than LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar. This work proposes an estimation of stand height and forest volume(m3/ha) using normalized digital surface model(nDSM) from high resolution stereo photography(25cm resolution) and forest type map. The study area was located in Mt. Maehwa model forest in Hong Chun-Gun, South Korea. The forest type map has four attributes such as major species, age class, DBH class and crown density class by stand. Overlapping aerial photos were taken in September 2013 and digital surface model(DSM) was created by photogrammetric methods(aerial triangulation, digital image matching). Then, digital terrain model (DTM) was created by filtering DSM and subtracted DTM from DSM pixel by pixel, resulting in nDSM which represents object heights(buildings, trees, etc.). Two independent variables from nDSM were used to estimate forest stand volume: crown density(%) and stand height(m). First, crown density was calculated using canopy segmentation method considering live crown ratio. Next, stand height was produced by averaging individual tree heights in a stand using Esri's ArcGIS and the USDA Forest Service's FUSION software. Finally, stand volume was estimated and mapped using aerial photo stand volume equations by species which have two independent variables, crown density and stand height. South Korea has a historical imagery archive which can show forest change in 40 years of successful forest rehabilitation. For a future study, forest volume change map(1970s-present) will be produced using this stand volume estimation method and a historical imagery archive.

Kwon T.-S.,National Institute of Forest Science
Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity | Year: 2016

Ant assemblages in the soil have been studied at eight forest sites (4 oak forest sites, and 4 pine forest sites) in four study areas (1 seminatural area, and 3 industrialized areas) in South Korea for 6 years from 2002 to 2010. Soil cores and Tullgren funnel were used for the ant survey. Ant surveys were carried out once per year in autumn (from late September to mid-October). The soil pH was lower in the industrialized than in the seminatural area, showing the acidified soils in the industrialized areas. However, the soil acidification did not influence the ant assemblages. The results from the nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination and from the community temperature index values indicate that temperature is a key determinant for structures of the soil ant assemblages. The ant assemblages were not different according to the forest types (oak forests vs. pine forests). Occurrence of ant species varied greatly among years, indicating that more replicates and advanced sampling method are needed for the monitoring of the soil ant assemblages. Copyright © 2016, National Science Museum of Korea (NSMK) and Korea National Arboretum (KNA). Production and hosting by Elsevier. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

National Institute Of Forest Science | Date: 2016-01-21

The present invention relates to a sheet for controlling termites, and more particularly, a sheet for controlling termites which has excellent control effect, can be easily treated and installed and is capable of prevent the place on which the sheet is installed from being damaged and deformed. The sheet for controlling termites according to the present invention comprises, a sheet main body being installed on the mounting surface and having planar structure; a movement route of termites being formed in the sheet main body for movement of termites; and a layer of termite pesticide comprising termite pesticide composition and being formed in the sheet main body and the movement route of termites.

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