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Singh S.R.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Singh S.R.,Kurukshetra University | Dalal S.,Kurukshetra University | Singh R.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | And 5 more authors.
In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant

Dendrocalamus hamiltonii is a giant, evergreen, clumping, multipurpose bamboo with strong culms which are mainly used for construction, handicrafts and fuel. The tender shoots are also used as food. Overexploitation of existing natural stocks coupled with harvesting of culms before seed formation, a long flowering cycle, irregular and poor seed production, short seed viability, seed sterility, limited availability of offsets and rhizomes and seasonal dependence are some of the major bottlenecks in conventional propagation of this species. Therefore, alternative methods like micropropagation can fill the gap in demand and supply of true-to-type planting material. Recently, our micropropagation protocol for rapid multiplication of D. hamiltonii through axillary bud proliferation using nodal explants from mature culms was standardized, and more than 3,000 plants were transferred to the field. However, somaclonal variations are known to appear in the in vitro-derived clones due to culture-induced stresses. Therefore, the present investigation was conducted to ascertain the effect of the length of in vitro culture age on clonal fidelity of regenerated plants using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The genomic DNA samples (i.e. mother plant, in vitro-raised shoots from the 3rd to 30th passage, and in vitro-raised plants transferred to the field) were subjected to PCR amplification using 90 primer combinations (25 each of RAPD, ISSR and SSR, and 15 AFLP primer combinations) of which 76 (23 RAPD, 24 ISSR, 21 SSR and 8 AFLP) markers showed amplified DNA fragments. The 23 RAPD primers produced 162 distinct amplified DNA fragments from 2 (OPE-5) to 16 (OPE-16) fragments per primer, while 24 ISSR primers produced 181 distinct amplified DNA fragments with an average of 7.5 fragments per primer. The number of bands generated by SSR primers varied from 3 (RM-7 and RM-240) to 14 (RM-44), and the eight combinations of AFLP primers produced 369 distinct and scorable amplified DNA fragments with an average of 46.1 fragments per primer. Appearance of monomorphic bands with all the tested primer combinations confirmed the true-to-type nature of the in vitro clones of D. hamiltonii and hence the suitability of the developed micropropagation protocol for commercial-scale plant production. © 2013 The Society for In Vitro Biology. Source

Singh S.R.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Singh S.R.,Kurukshetra University | Singh R.,Center for Plant Biotechnology | Kalia S.,Block 2 | And 5 more authors.
Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants

Bamboos (family Poaceae) are the most beautiful and useful plants on the Earth, mainly found in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Bamboos are fast growing and early maturing, but lack of proper management of bamboo resources is leading to rapid reduction of the existing bamboosetum. Bamboo propagation through seeds is limited due to long flowering cycle of upto 120 years, seed sterility and short seed viability. Infrequent and unpredictable flowering events coupled with peculiar monocarpic behaviour i. e. flowering once before culm death, and extensive genome polyploidization are additional challenges for this woody group. Similarly, vegetative propagation by cuttings, offsets and rhizomes are also inadequate to cope up with the demand of planting stock due to large propagule size, limited availability, seasonal dependence, low multiplication rate and rooting percentage. Therefore, attempts have been made to propagate bamboos through in vitro techniques. In vitro flowering has also been achieved successfully in some bamboo species. Classification systems proposed to date need further support, as taxonomic delineation at lower levels is still lacking sufficient resolution. Tremendous advancement in molecular markers holds the promise to address the needs of bamboo taxonomy (systematics and identification) and diversity studies. Successful application of molecular marker techniques has been achieved in several bamboo species although, more studies are required to understand the population structure and genetic diversity of bamboos in a better way. In addition, some efforts have also been made to clone important genes from bamboos and also for genetic transformation using Agrobacterium and particle bombardment methods. An overview of the recent developments made in improvement of bamboos through in vitro propagation, molecular marker technologies, cloning, and transformation and transgenics has been presented. The future potential of improvement of bamboos using modern biotechnological tools has also been discussed. © 2012 Prof. H.S. Srivastava Foundation for Science and Society. Source

Korada S.K.,National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management NIFTEM | Yarla N.S.,Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management | Bishayee A.,Larkin Health science Institute | Aliev G.,International Biomedical | And 6 more authors.
Current Pharmaceutical Design

Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, especially microbial dysbiosis play role in several GI ailments such as irritable bowel syndrome, colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases, and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Role of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is multifactorial as it involves loss of maintaining intestinal epithelial barrier integrity, increased release of pro-inflammatory molecules, and microbial dysbiosis in gut microflora. Some specific pathogens also play a key role in the IBD development. The origin and causation are still in unfathomable condition and the exact root cause is unknown. Recently probiotic studies have been gaining importance because of their positive responses in their IBD experimental results. According to joint Food and Agricultural Organisation/World Health Organisation working group, probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confer health benefit on the host. These live beneficial microorganisms are considered helpful in improving gut colonization and perseverance thereby improves prophylactic effect. In the direction of IBD research, a number of studies are needed to standardize its methodology and its applicability on human usage. The particular review presents an overview of gut microflora and its impact on host health, types of IBD and existing therapies to treat this disorder, mechanism of several probiotic actions, role of probiotics in IBD prevention with their supporting evidences. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Bashir K.,National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management NIFTEM | Aggarwal M.,National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management NIFTEM
LWT - Food Science and Technology

The physicochemical, functional and thermal properties of the chickpea flour treated with 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy irradiation dose at the rate of 0.5 kGy/h were investigated. Results showed that the proximate composition of the flour did not change significantly. However, pasting properties showed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in peak viscosity, final viscosity, setback viscosity, trough viscosity and pasting temperature as the dosage increased. Swelling, syneresis and solubility improved with dosage. Oil absorption capacity and water absorption capacity increased significantly with dosage from 1.03 to 1.45 and 1.56-2.63 g/g of flour respectively. pH decreased significantly with dosage. Gelatinization temperature increased, while as enthalpy decreased significantly. Texture profile properties also decreased with dosage. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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