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Singh G.M.,Tufts University | Micha R.,Tufts University | Micha R.,Agricultural University of Athens | Khatibzadeh S.,Harvard University | And 105 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fruit juice, and milk are components of diet of major public health interest. To-date, assessment of their global distributions and health impacts has been limited by insufficient comparable and reliable data by country, age, and sex. Objective To quantify global, regional, and national levels of SSB, fruit juice, and milk intake by age and sex in adults over age 20 in 2010. Methods We identified, obtained, and assessed data on intakes of these beverages in adults, by age and sex, from 193 nationally- or subnationally-representative diet surveys worldwide, representing over half the world's population. We also extracted data relevant to milk, fruit juice, and SSB availability for 187 countries from annual food balance information collected by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to account for measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modeling uncertainty, and to combine and harmonize nationally representative dietary survey data and food availability data. Results In 2010, global average intakes were 0.58 (95%UI: 0.37, 0.89) 8 oz servings/day for SSBs, 0.16 (0.10, 0.26) for fruit juice, and 0.57 (0.39, 0.83) for milk. There was significant heterogeneity in consumption of each beverage by region and age. Intakes of SSB were highest in the Caribbean (1.9 servings/day; 1.2, 3.0); fruit juice consumption was highest in Australia and New Zealand (0.66; 0.35, 1.13); and milk intake was highest in Central Latin America and parts of Europe (1.06; 0.68, 1.59). Intakes of all three beverages were lowest in East Asia and Oceania. Globally and within regions, SSB consumption was highest in younger adults; fruit juice consumption showed little relation with age; and milk intakes were highest in older adults. Conclusions Our analysis highlights the enormous spectrum of beverage intakes worldwide, by country, age, and sex. These data are valuable for highlighting gaps in dietary surveillance, determining the impacts of these beverages on global health, and targeting dietary policy. © 2015 Singh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Valcz G.,Semmelweis University | Sipos F.,Semmelweis University | Krenacs T.,Semmelweis University | Molnar J.,National Institute of Food and Nutrition Science | And 6 more authors.
Pathology and Oncology Research | Year: 2012

Our aim was to examine cell transition events by detecting the frequency of intrapithelial α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) +/cytokeratin (CK) + cells during colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence, in relation to E-cadherin expression. Our further aim was to determine the proliferative activity of intraepithelial α-SMA + cells. Histologically healthy, adenoma, and colorectal cancer (CRC) biopsy samples were taken during routine colonoscopy and were included into tissue microarrays (TMAs). Slides immunostained for Ki-67, α-SMA, E-cadherin and pan-cytokeratin were digitalized and analyzed by using a digital microscope software. The proportion of α-SMA +/CK + cells was significantly higher in CRC samples (3.34±1.01%) compared to healthy (1.94±0.69%) or adenoma (1.62±0.78%) samples (p<0.01). E-cadherin expression negatively correlated with the number of α-SMA + cells. The majority of intraepithelial α-SMA + cells were in the proliferative phase. During tumor progression, the appearance of dot-like α-SMA staining in CK positive cells may indicate the initial phase of the epithelial-tomesenchymal transition (EMT). The high proportion of intraepithelial α-SMA + proliferating cells may refer to their increased plasticity compared to differentiated cells. The negative correlation between E-cadherin and intraepithelial α-SMA expression suggests that EMT is facilitated by a loss of epithelial cell contact. © Arányi Lajos Foundation 2011.

Valcz G.,Semmelweis University | Sipos F.,Semmelweis University | Krenacs T.,Semmelweis University | Molnar J.,National Institute of Food and Nutrition Science | And 10 more authors.
Pathology and Oncology Research | Year: 2010

Colorectal cancer progression is characterized by altered epithelial proliferation and apoptosis and by changed expression of tumor development regulators. Our aims were to determine the proliferative/apoptotic epithelial cell ratio (PAR) in the adenoma-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence (ADCS), and to examine its association with osteopontin (OPN), a previously identified protein product related to cancer development. One mm diameter cores from 13 healthy colons, 13 adenomas and 13 colon carcinoma samples were included into a tissue microarray (TMA) block. TUNEL reaction and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry were applied to determine the PAR. The osteopontin protein was also immunodetected. Stained slides were semiquantitatively evaluated using digital microscope and statistically analyzed with logistic regression and Fisher's exact test. The PAR continuously increased along the ADCS. It was significantly (p<0.001) higher in cancer epithelium (8.84±7.01) than in adenomas (1.40±0.78) and in normal controls (0.89±0.21) (p<0.001). Also, significant positive correlation was observed between elevated PAR and the expression of osteopontin. Cytoplasmic OPN expression was weak in healthy samples. In contrast, cytoplasmic immunoreaction was moderately intensive in adenomas, while in colon cancer strong, diffuse cytoplasmic immune staining was detected. Increasing PAR and OPN expression along ADCS may help monitoring colorectal cancer progression. The significantly elevated OPN protein levels we found during normal epithelium to carcinoma progression may contribute to the increased fibroblast- myofibroblast transition determining stem cell niche in colorectal cancer. © 2010 Arányi Lajos Foundation.

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