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Lim Y.-J.,Pukyong National University | Kim D.-H.,Pukyong National University | Roh H.J.,Pukyong National University | Park M.-A.,National Institute of Fisheries science NIFS | And 2 more authors.
Aquaculture International | Year: 2016

The susceptibility of 52 isolates of Edwardsiella tarda and 54 isolates of Vibrio harveyi to 12 antibiotics was established using internationally standardised disc diffusion protocols. Normalised resistance interpretation was employed to generate statistically valid epidemiological cut-off values for these susceptibility data. For three of these 24 species/antibiotic data sets, there were insufficient fully sensitive strains to allow analysis and for an additional two there were sufficient fully susceptible isolates to allow only a provisional estimate to be made. The data sets for a further two species/antibiotic combinations were considered too diverse to allow the calculation of a valid cut-off value. Valid epidemiological cut-off values were, therefore, calculated for 17 species/antibiotic combinations. It is argued that these cut-off values will greatly facilitate the performance of studies designed to monitor the consequence of antibiotic use in aquaculture. They will also facilitate the prudent and rational choice of antibiotics to be applied therapeutically in commercial farming of aquatic animals. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland Source

Jin X.,Hanyang University | Lee H.-K.,Hanyang University | Badejo A.C.,Hanyang University | Lee S.-Y.,Hanyang University | And 5 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2016

Legacy and new persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in sediments near a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) outfall in a semi-enclosed bay, to investigate the current contamination and temporal changes in these contaminants associated with regulation activities in Korea. The concentrations of most of the POPs showed clear decreasing trends with an increase in the distance from the WWTP outfall, indicating that the WWTP discharges greatly contributed to the sediment contamination by POPs. Highly significant correlations were found for most of the POPs, indicating a common source for sediment contamination. Significant declines were found in the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and PAHs in the sediments collected between 2005 and 2013. This result suggested that legislative actions (regulation of the PCDD/Fs in flue gas, total pollution load management, and whole effluent toxicity for WWTP discharges) and change of fuels, were likely to be effective at reducing the POP and PAH levels in sediments during the past several years. The different compositional profiles of the PCDD/Fs and PAHs between 2005 and 2013 implied changes in and/or additional sources of these contaminants. Despite a decline in the PCDD/Fs over time, the present levels of PCDD/Fs in the sediment exceeded some of the sediment quality guidelines suggested by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Choi S.-D.,Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology | Son H.-S.,Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology | Choi M.,National Institute of Fisheries science NIFS | Park M.-K.,Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2015

In this study, 36 fish species were collected from three coastal cities in Korea to investigate levels and patterns of six arsenicals (arsenite: As (III), arsenate: As (V), arsenocholine: AsC, arsenobetaine: AsB, monomethylarsonic acid: MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid: DMA). The levels of ∑6 As in the different fish species varied substantially, ranging from 0.02 μg As/g ww (Islaeli carp) to 9.65 μg As/g ww (Skate ray) with a median of 0.40 μg As/g ww. All the arsenicals in marine fishes showed higher levels than those in freshwater fishes due to fish feed living in saline water. Overall, marine carnivorous fishes seem to be more contaminated with arsenic. For all the fish samples, AsB (mean fraction: 90.6%) was dominant among the six arsenicals, indicating biomethylation of inorganic arsenic and accumulation of AsB. Fish species with high water contents showed elevated levels of As (III), but there was no further significant correlations between arsenicals and water/lipid contents. Concentrations of As (V) were significantly lower than those of As (III), which implies that As (V) is reduced during biomethylation of inorganic arsenic. Consequently, we hypothesize that the toxicity of arsenic (mainly derived from As (III)) can be increased by the reduction of As (V), especially for the fish species with higher water contents. © 2015, Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Kim D.-J.,National Institute of Fisheries science NIFS | Park C.-W.,Hankyong National University | Kim D.-W.,Hankyong National University | Park H.-K.,Hankyong National University | And 6 more authors.
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2016

We prepared monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against a recombinant tethered follicle-stimulating hormone (rec-FSH) from Japanese eel Anguilla japonica that was produced in Escherichia coli. Positive hybridomas (clones eFA-C5, eFA-C10, eFA-C11, eFA-C12, eFA-C13, and eFB-C14) were selected by using the eel FSH antigen in ELISA, and anti-eel FSH mAbs were purified from culture supernatants by performing affinity chromatography. Three of the 6 mAbs were characterized and their isotypes were identified as IgG2b (eFA-C5 and eFA-C11) and IgG1 (eFB-C14). In western blotting assays, the mAbs recognized the antigen as a 24.3-kDa band, and further detected bands of 34 and 32 kDa in the supernatants of CHO cells transfected with cDNA encoding tethered eel FSHβ/α and LHβ/α, respectively. PNase F-mediated deglycosylation of the recombinant proteins resulted in a drastic reduction in their molecular weight, to 7-9 kDa. The mAbs eFA-C5 and eFA-C11 recognized the eel FSHα-subunit that is commonly encoded among glycoprotein hormones, whereas eFB-C14 recognized the eel FSHβ-subunit, and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the staining by these mAbs was specifically localized in the eel pituitary. We also established an ELISA system for detecting rec-tethered FSHβ/α and LHβ/α produced from CHO cell lines. Measurement of biological activities in vitro revealed that only weak activity of rec-FSHβ/α was detected. The activity of rec-LHβ/α was found to be increased in a dose-dependent manner for eel oocyte maturation. © 2016 The Authors. Source

Oh H.-T.,National Institute of Fisheries science NIFS | Jung R.-H.,National Institute of Fisheries science NIFS | Cho Y.-S.,Coastal Wetland Research Institute | Hwang D.-W.,National Institute of Fisheries science NIFS | Yi Y.-M.,National Institute of Fisheries science NIFS
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2015

To assess the marine environmental impacts of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farms in Wan-do, we monitored the benthic environment on top of the sediment underneath cage farm stations and reference stations. We applied two methods for this assessment. One was the A- and B-investigation of the MOM system (Modeling–On fish farm–Monitoring) developed in Norway. The other was a general environmental monitoring method which is widely used. In this study, we found benthic animals in all samples that belonged to condition 1 which were based on group 1(presence of macrofauna) of the B-investigation method. The values of redox potential (group 2–pH, redox potential) in all samples were above +65 mV belonging to condition 1. Based on sensory results (group 3–gas, color, odor, thickness of deposits), five out of seven experiment samples showed condition 1 while stations 2 and 7 showed condition 2, which have been cultured for 10 years in semi-closed waters. As group 2 takes precedence over group 3, the level of the conditions for B-investigation results consequently showed condition 1 in all stations. We found that pollutants and trace metals in the sediment underneath cage farms were lower than the pollution standard. This led us to conclude that the environmental impacts of the cage farms in this study were not significant. © 2015, Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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