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Badrinathan S.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Suneeva S.C.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Shiju T.M.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Girish Kumar C.P.,National Institute of Epidemiology ICMR | Pragasam V.,Vellore Institute of Technology
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research

Sargassum myriocystum was selected to evaluate for reactive oxygen radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities using commonly accepted assays. After shade drying, marine seaweeds were powdered and extracts were prepared by cold and Soxhlet methods using various organic solvents. Crude powder materials were used for determination of bio-chemical constituents like protein, carbohydrate and phenolic contents. It was found that phenolic contents constituted 22 mg gallic acid equivalents/ gm of dry plant materials. Methanol/chloroform extracts of Soxhlet showed highest reducing power, total antioxidant and hydroxyl scavenging activity. 80 to 120% inhibition of hydroxyl radical quenching activity was observed and demonstrated by all Soxhlet derived extracts, except petroleum ether. Hence, from the results we conclude presence of novel compound(s) in the crude extract of (methanol: chloroform) S. myriocystum is responsible for its hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. © 2011 Academic Journals. Source

Mishra N.N.,PGIMER Dr. R.M.L. Hospital | Bhatia T.,PGIMER Dr. R.M.L. Hospital | Kumar N.,National Institute of Epidemiology ICMR | Nimgaonkar V.L.,University of Pittsburgh | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Medical Research

Background & objectives: Mental health professionals have varied attitudes and views regarding informed consent and confidentiality protections in psychiatric research and clinical care. The present study was designed to understand the knowledge and views of mental health professionals (MHPs) regarding informed consent and confidentiality protection practices. Methods: Mental health professionals (n=121) who were members of the Delhi Psychiatric Society, were invited to participate in this questionnaire-based study of their knowledge and attitudes regarding informed consent and confidentiality. Half of them expressed willingness to discuss participation and gave initial oral consent (n=62); of these, 31 gave written informed consent to participate and completed the questionnaires. The questionnaires included both forced choice (yes/no/do not know) and open-ended questions. Questionnaires content reflected prominent guidelines on informed consent and confidentiality protection. Results: Attitudes of the majority of the participants towards informed consent and confidentiality were in line with ethical principles and guidelines. All expressed the opinion that confidentiality should generally be respected and that if confidentiality was breached, there could be mistrust of the professional by the patient/participant. The mean knowledge scores regarding informed consent and confidentiality were 8.55 ± 1.46 and 8.16 ± 1.29, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: The participating mental health professionals appeared to have adequate knowledge of basic ethical guidelines concerning informed consent and confidentiality. Most respondents were aware of ethical issues in research. Given the small sample size and low response rate, the significance of the quantitative analysis must be regarded with modesty, and qualitative analysis of open-ended questions may be more valuable for development of future research. Increased efforts to involve mental health professionals in research on ethical concerns pertinent to their work must be made, and the actual practices of these professionals with regard to ethical guidelines need to be studied. Source

Ramaiah K.D.,Vector Control Research Center | Vanamail P.,Vector Control Research Center | Yuvaraj J.,National Institute of Epidemiology ICMR | Das P.K.,Vector Control Research Center
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Annual mass drug administration (MDA) is the recommended strategy for lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination. We assessed the effect of six rounds of mass administration of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole (ALB) on microfilaria (Mf) prevalence and intensity and vector infection and infectivity rates and circulating filarial antigenaemia (CFA) in a group of five villages in south India, endemic for Culex-transmitted bancroftian filariasis. During different rounds of MDA, 60-70% of the eligible population (>15 kg body weight) was treated. The MDA reduced the Mf prevalence from 8.10% (CI 6.18-10.01) to 1.01% (CI 0.31-1.71) (P<0.05) and geometric mean intensity of Mf from 0.31 (CI 0.22-0.40) to 0.02 (CI 0.00-0.04) (P<0.05), equivalent to a fall of 86% and 94% respectively. The vector infection and infectivity rates declined from 13.11% (CI 11.52-14.70) to 0.78% (CI 0.16-1.40) (P<0.05) and 1.04% (CI 0.56-1.52) to 0.13% (CI 0.00-0.39) (P<0.05), respectively. Four out of the five villages recorded <0.5% Mf prevalence and 0% vector infection rate. Circulating filarial antigenaemia (CFA) fell by 86% in the total population and 100% in 1-10 year old children. One of the five villages, which showed the highest baseline vector infection rate, showed >1.0% Mf rate. The results suggest that six rounds of mass administration of DEC and ALB, with 60-70% treatment coverage, is likely to achieve total interruption of transmission and elimination of LF in the majority of villages. © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

Anand P.K.,Desert Medicine Research Center | Ramakrishnan R.,National Institute of Epidemiology ICMR
Indian Journal of Medical Research

Background & objectives: Outbreaks of typhoid have been reported from Maharashtra, Bangalore, West Bengal and Pondicherry in India but rarely from Rajasthan. We investigated an outbreak of typhoid in a village of Thar Desert of Rajasthan. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was carried out during May-July 2007 in Varkana village, Pali district, Rajasthan, to identify the risk factor for disease. The information on outbreak was collected and then described in time, place and person characteristics to arrive at aetiological hypotheses. Results: There were 219 cases of typhoid in village. Attack rate was 104 cases per 1000 population. Maximum attack rate of 276 cases per 1000 population was noted in persons of 10-14 yr age group. Forty three serum samples were reported positive for Widal agglutination test out of 70 tested. Drinking of water from government overhead tanks was associated with disease significantly (RR= 11.1, 95% CI= 3.7-33). Two of the three water samples from government tanks were found positive for faecal contamination. Interpretation & conclusion: The outbreak of typhoid in a village affected >200 persons of all age groups and both gender. Exposure to the drinking water from government tanks was found significantly associated with the disease. Preventive and control measures undertaken after analytical epidemiological study helped in terminating the outbreak. Source

Thilakavathi S.,National Institute of Epidemiology ICMR | Boopathi K.,National Institute of Epidemiology ICMR | Kumar C.P.G.,National Institute of Epidemiology ICMR | Santhakumar A.,National Institute of Epidemiology ICMR | And 7 more authors.
BMC Public Health

Background: Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, a large-scale HIV prevention program, using peer-mediated approaches and STI services, was implemented for high-risk groups for HIV in six states in India. This paper describes the assessment of the program among female sex workers (FSWs) in the southern state of Tamil Nadu. Methods. An analytical framework based on the Avahan impact evaluation design was used. Routine program monitoring data, two rounds of cross-sectional biological and behavioural surveys among FSWs in 2006 (Round 1) and 2009 (Round 2) and quality assessments of clinical services for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were used to assess trends in coverage, condom use and prevalence of STIs, HIV and their association with program exposure. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine trends in intermediate outcomes and their associations with intervention exposure. Results: The Avahan program in Tamil Nadu was scaled up and achieved monthly reported coverage of 79% within four years of implementation. The cross-sectional survey data showed an increasing proportion of FSWs being reached by Avahan, 54% in Round 1 and 86% in Round 2 [AOR=4.7;p=0.001]. Quality assessments of STI clinical services showed consistent improvement in quality scores (3.0 in 2005 to 4.5 in 2008). Condom distribution by the program rose to cover all estimated commercial sex acts. Reported consistent condom use increased between Round 1 and Round 2 with occasional (72% to 93%; AOR=5.5; p=0.001) and regular clients (68% to 89%; AOR=4.3; p=0.001) while reactive syphilis serology declined significantly (9.7% to 2.2% AOR=0.2; p=0.001). HIV prevalence remained stable at 6.1% between rounds. There was a strong association between Avahan exposure and consistent condom use with commercial clients; however no association was seen with declines in STIs. Conclusions: The Avahan program in Tamil Nadu achieved high coverage of FSWs, resulting in outcomes of improved condom use, declining syphilis and stabilizing HIV prevalence. These expected outcomes following the program logic model and declining HIV prevalence among general population groups suggest potential impact of high risk group interventions on HIV epidemic in Tamil Nadu. © 2011 Thilakavathi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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