National Institute of Environmental Research Environmental Research Complex

Incheon, South Korea

National Institute of Environmental Research Environmental Research Complex

Incheon, South Korea
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Kim M.,National Academy of Agricultural Science | Park K.,Chonnam National University | Park J.Y.,National Institute of Environmental Research Environmental Research Complex | Kwak I.-S.,Chonnam National University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2013

The objectives of this study were to determine levels of heavy metal in the feathers and blood of Black-tailed gulls (Larus crassirostris), to evaluate metallothionein (MT) mRNA level in Black-tailed gulls on three independent islets, and to examine the correlation between heavy metal concentrations and MT mRNA expression. Eleven heavy metals (Al, Cd, Mn, Pb, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Hg, and As) were investigated in blood and feathers of 65 chicks from breeding colonies (Seomando, Hongdo, and Dokdo islet) of South Korea in 2010. Heavy metals were assayed by PerkinElmer NexION 300 inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean concentrations of non-essential heavy metals were found to blood containing Cd (0.002 ~ 0.02 ppm), Pb (0.06 ~ 0.18) ppm, Hg (0.03 ~ 0.05) ppm, and As (0.26 ~ 0.48 ppm), and feather containing Cd (0.05 ~ 0.30 ppm), Pb (2.47 ~ 10.80 ppm), Hg (1.18 ~ 1.57 ppm), and As (0.15 ~ 0.44 ppm). Chicks on Seomando islet showed the highest levels of metals (Cd, Pb, Mn, Cr, Cu, and Se in blood; Al, As, Mn, Cr, Fe, Cu, and Se in feathers) among the colonies. Concentrations of Pb and Hg in feathers were the highest on Hongdo, and the levels of Cd and Zn in feathers were the highest on Dokdo islet. MT mRNA in the blood of Black-tailed gulls was relatively higher in gulls from Seomando than in gulls from Hongdo and Dokdo islet. MT mRNA level is thus positively correlated to heavy metal concentrations in Black-tailed gulls. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Lee I.H.,University of Seoul | Lee S.,University of Seoul | Park J.S.,National Institute of Environmental Research Environmental Research Complex | Kim S.D.,University of Seoul
KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering | Year: 2012

To reduce emissions of Greenhouse Gas (GHGs) from automobiles, real on-road emission data should be required to help policy makers establish standards for reducing GHG emissions. Since general studies on calculating CO 2 emissions from transportation sources have been based on petroleum consumption data, it has been difficult to analyze spatial activities and characteristics of transportation sources. In this study, we propose a method for calculating CO 2 emissions from on-road transportation sources in Seoul. We focused on CO 2 emission calculation by applying real traffic flow data and analyzed base emissions from the main roads and local streets. Because the emissions were calculated using a 1 km×1 km grid cell format, these data can be applied to other compatible transportation data sets for air pollution analysis, modal shift analysis, etc in the transportation sector. © 2012 Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Yoo E.-J.,National Institute of Environmental Research Environmental Research Complex | Lee J.-A.,National Institute of Environmental Research Environmental Research Complex | Park J.-S.,National Institute of Environmental Research Environmental Research Complex | Lee K.,National Institute of Environmental Research Environmental Research Complex | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2014

This study focused on Pb isotope ratios of sediments in areas around an abandoned mine to determine if the ratios can be used as a source tracer. For pretreatment, sediment samples were dissolved with mixed acids, and a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS, Nu plasma II) was used to investigate the Pb isotopic composition of the samples. The measured isotope ratios were then corrected for instrumental mass fractionation by measuring the 203Tl/205Tl ratio. Repeated measurements with the NIST SRM 981 reference material showed that the precision of all ratios was below 104 ppm (±2σ) for 50 ng/g. The isotope ratios (207Pb/206Pb) found were 0.85073 ± 0.0004~0.85373 ± 0.0003 for the main stream, while they were 0.83736 ± 0.0010 for the tributary and 0.84393 ± 0.0002 for the confluence. A binary mixing equation for isotope ratios showed that the contributions of mine lead to neighboring areas were up to 60 %. Therefore, Pb isotope ratios can be a good source tracer for areas around abandoned mines. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Choi J.-W.,National Institute of Environmental Research Environmental Research Complex | Kim J.-Y.,National Institute of Environmental Research Environmental Research Complex | Nam Y.-J.,National Institute of Environmental Research Environmental Research Complex | Lee W.-S.,National Institute of Environmental Research Environmental Research Complex | Han J.-S.,National Institute of Environmental Research Environmental Research Complex
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2013

This study was purposed to examine the use of amino acids as an indicator to determine whether groundwater around carcass burial sites is polluted by livestock wastewater (LW) or carcass leachate (CL). The analysis of samples showed that the average amino acid concentration of carcass leachate (531.897 mg/L; 4341.784 μmol/L) was about 300 times as high as that of livestock wastewater (1.755 mg/L; 16.283 μmol/L). To identify distinct characteristics between LW and CL, six amino acids were paired with one another to calculate their relative composition ratios, which were found to be Leu/Trp (CL 8.39∼98.6, LW 0.89∼4.77), Val/Trp (CL 11.95∼175.38, LW 0.73∼3.62), Lys/Leu (CL 0.01∼0.72, LW 0.96∼8.44), Lys/Ile (CL 0.02∼1.55, LW 1.64∼10.99), Met/Lys (CL 0.14∼0.45, LW 0.03∼0.14), and Ile/Val (CL 0.38∼0.73, LW 0.40∼0.97). The hierarchical clustering result showed that the similarity was 0.617 among the seven LW samples and 0.563 among the seven CL samples, while the similarity between LW and CL samples was 0.198, presenting that these two sources are distinct from each other. All these results indicate that amino acids can be used as a tracer to evaluate if the contamination source is livestock wastewater or carcass leachate. To apply amino acids to tracing pollutants more effectively, however, further studies are needed to understand whether the relative abundance ratios of amino acids are maintained as they are transporting through soils as a medium. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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