The Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovação , usually known as INETI for short, is a state-run R&D institution in Lisbon, Portugal, with scientific and technological activities in areas like new systems, processes and products; environmental and sustainable management; geological resources and risks; citizen protection, health and safety; space and defence; laboratory support and testing; etc.The Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovação carries out research, testing and technological development. Its mission is to promote technological innovation focused on science and technology with the overriding objective of raising company competitiveness within a framework of sustainable economic progress.Within the scope of competences attributed by Portuguese government strategies and policies for economic and social development, INETI takes up the role of an interface between the results generated by research and development programmes and their technological integration into the private sector .Its participation in a range of international projects positions it both as a key partner for internationalisation and a source of specialist information across its respective fields.INETI, as a Portuguese Ministry of Economy and Innovation entity, further serves as consultant for public policies in a diverse range of fields including: energy, the environment, sustainability, metrology, norms and certification. Wikipedia.
Alegria C.,National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation |
Pinheiro J.,National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation |
Goncalves E.M.,National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation |
Fernandes I.,National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation |
And 2 more authors.
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies | Year: 2010
The effect of a pre-cut heat treatment (100 °C/45 s) as an alternative decontamination treatment to chlorinated-water (200 ppm active chlorine/1 min, 5 °C) was evaluated in minimally processed carrot (shredded). The quality of shredded carrots was studied just after minimal processing and during storage at 5 °C (10 days) by evaluating microbial (total mesophilic aerobic, yeast and moulds and lactic acid bacteria counts), physical-chemical (soluble solids content, pH, titratable acidity, whiteness index), physiological (peroxidase activity and headspace analysis) and sensorial attributes (colour, fresh-like appearance, aroma and general acceptance). The relationships between sensory perception of undesired changes, microbial contamination threshold, physico-chemical and physiological indices were investigated and compared between heat-treated and control samples. The use of heat in pre-cut carrot proved to be more efficient than chlorinated-water concerning microbial control (threshold concentration of 7 Log10 cfu g- 1), providing an acceptable fresh-like quality product during 10 days of storage (5 °C), which corresponds to a 3-day shelf-life extension compared to control samples. Heat-treated shredded carrot showed lower respiratory and POD activities than chlorinated samples suggesting that the use of heat provides a metabolic activity lowering effect besides the microbial effect which could be important to shelf-life extension of the fresh-cut product. Industrial relevance: In minimally processed vegetables, namely in shredded carrot, chlorine solutions have been widely used by the industry for sanitization purposes. However, reduced microbiological efficiency allied to sensorial changes and eventual formation of carcinogenic chlorinated compounds pointed out the need for alternative decontamination methodologies. Also, the evermore conscious consumers are demanding minimization of the potentially negative impact of food processing on human health and the environment. From the practical experience of a fresh-cut industry directly involved in the R&D research project which supported this study, the marketability of minimally processed shredded carrot is limited due to rapid microbial growth and colour loss (decrease of orange intensity and/or whitening of the shreds). As a result, a pilot-plant scale study was performed, evaluating quality attributes of shredded carrot processed according to a clean pre-cut alternative decontamination process. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Candido J.J.,University of Lisbon |
Justino P.A.P.S.,National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation
Renewable Energy | Year: 2011
Frequency-domain analysis is applied to a wave energy device composed of two coaxial axisymmetric bodies. For each frequency optimal damping coefficient values which maximize absorbed power are obtained. Several displacement amplitude restriction scenarios are considered. A stochastic model to describe the device's behaviour in irregular waves is developed. Optimal mechanical damping and spring coefficients are computed. Considering different sea state conditions, probability density functions are defined for relevant parameters and time-averaged absorbed power values are obtained. A time domain model is also developed for the device. A non-linear power take-off mechanism configuration, consisting in a hydraulic circuit with low-pressure and high-pressure gas accumulators, is devised. Time-averaged absorbed power is maximized in terms of characteristic mechanism parameter. A sub-optimal method of phase control by latching is applied to the device in order to improve its performance. Analytical development of Pontryagin Maximum Principle is used to establish an algorithm for device's control. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Gonzalez-Fernandez O.,CSIC - Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera |
Batista M.J.,National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation |
Abreu M.M.,University of Lisbon |
Queralt I.,CSIC - Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera |
Carvalho M.L.,University of Lisbon
X-Ray Spectrometry | Year: 2011
The chemical concentrations of 11 elements in 6 species of edible plants grown in 7 soils, developed in different gossanous materials of the abandoned mine area of Sao Domingos, in southern Portugal, was measured by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The total fraction of elements in the soils from which the plants were sampled, was measured, using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The elemental content in bioavailable fraction was obtained by using three different leaching tests: DIN 38414-S4, 1 M ammonium acetate and 0.005 M DTPA. Leachates were analyzed by Induced Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) and Induced Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The mineralogy of the same soils was evaluated by X-ray diffraction to identify the species present. The results show that levels in plants can be hazardous especially for Pb and As. Important concentrations of Fe and K were also observed. A different uptake was observed in the several plants for the different elements. The highest assimilation of metals was observed in sampling points containing soluble sulfate salts. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mata L.,University of Algarve |
Gaspar H.,National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation |
Gaspar H.,University of Lisbon |
Justino F.,National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation |
Santos R.,University of Algarve
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2011
The genus Asparagopsis is a prolific source of halogenated metabolites. Due to its commercial applications, it has been intensively cultivated in southern Portugal. In the present study, we assess if the internal levels of the major halogenated metabolites (bromoform and dibromoacetic acid) in Asparagopsis taxiformis can be increased with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition. Previous studies with red algae showed that the production/release of bromoform can be enhanced by exogenously supplying H2O2. However, no study has assessed if H2O2 supply enhances the content of secondary metabolites within the biomass. This detail is important as the objective of the proposed research is to enhance the content of these valuable metabolites in the produced biomass. Both the activity of the haloperoxidase enzyme and the metabolite content were assessed on short-term and long-term incubation periods to H2O2. To determine the susceptibility of A. taxiformis photosynthetic performance to the imposed oxidative stress, the in vivo fluorescence of photosystem II was monitored. A. taxiformis was shown to be physiologically vulnerable to H2O2, given the observed decrease of the maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (Fv/Fm). Contrary to what was expected, the presence of H2O2 inhibited the activity of the iodoperoxidase enzyme. Nevertheless, the extracted halogenated metabolites were higher over the first hours of exposure to H2O2, decreasing after 48 h. These results are probably related to the prosthetic group of the halogenated enzyme in A. taxiformis and the long-term oxidative stress damage of H2O2 exposure. Considering the objective of the proposed research, addition of H2O2 to the cultures, prior (3 h) to biomass harvesting, increases the metabolite content. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Castro O.,University of Beira Interior |
Silva J.M.,University of Beira Interior |
Devezas T.,University of Beira Interior |
Silva A.,University of Lisbon |
Gil L.,National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation
Materials and Design | Year: 2010
The experiments carried out in this investigation were oriented in order to optimize the properties of cork-based agglomerates as an ideal core material for sandwich components of lightweight structures, such as those used in aerospace applications. Static bending tests were performed in order to characterize the mechanical strength of different types of cork agglomerates which were obtained considering distinct production variables. The ability to withstand dynamic loads was also evaluated from a set of impact tests using carbon-cork sandwich specimens. The results got from experimental tests revealed that cork agglomerates performance essentially depends on the cork granule size, its density and the bonding procedure used for the cohesion of granulates, and these parameters can be adjusted in function of the final application intended for the sandwich component. These results also allow inferring that optimized cork agglomerates have some specific properties that confirm their superior ability as a core material of sandwich components when compared with other conventional materials. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alvaro J.J.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology |
Ezzouhairi H.,Chouaïb Doukkali University |
Ayad N.A.,Chouaïb Doukkali University |
Charif A.,Chouaïb Doukkali University |
And 2 more authors.
Precambrian Research | Year: 2010
In the Zenaga and Saghro inliers of the Anti-Atlas, Morocco, the Ediacaran Ouarzazate volcanosedimentary Supergroup preserves a record of the complex interplay between effusion of lava floods and explosive volcanic activity from numerous separate volcanic centres. Volcanic units consist of basaltic and andesitic, lava flows and subvolcanic sills and dikes, and dacitic/rhyolitic ignimbrites and tuffs that represent a post-collisional, high-K calc-alkaline magmatism. Volcanic events are separated by erosive and low-angle unconformities (related to regional tilting), which mark significant hiatii in the timing of deposition and are locally marked by carbonate production in palaeoweathered lowlands. Infill of scattered, decametre-scale, carbonate-bearing troughs, less than 1 km across, started with the dominantly local derivation of weathered and eroded lava debris, followed by the migration of scattered subaqueous bottomset and foreset structures, and final nucleation of carbonate productivity. Microbial mats developed along the shorelines of these ponds. When bathymetry increased the stromatolites developed domal to columnar morphologies that coalesced laterally to form metre-thick biostromes. The lack of evidence for significant fluvial and deltaic deposits suggests that the streams that entered the ponds were intermittent and thus not a significant source of water. It appears that groundwater, rather than surface water, was the dominant source of water to sustain the ephemeral ponds in the low-lying weathered palaeodepressions preserved in the Ouarzazate Supergroup. Fluids passing through the surrounding volcanic landscape and the volcanic ashes interbedded within the lacustrine infill supplied silica-enriched fluids, giving the ponds the characteristics of alkaline lake systems. Their lacustrine affinity is supported by the subaerial character of many of the volcanic products that surround them. REE composition of partly silicified, dolomitized and undolomitized stromatolites is entirely consistent with freshwater (lacustrine) or shallow lagoonal (with a strong freshwater input) depositional settings, but they also display a strong contamination from the rhyolitic tuffs that overly them. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Neves M.,Technological and Nuclear Institute of Portugal |
Teixeira F.C.,National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation |
Antunes I.,National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation |
Majkowska A.,Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology of Poland |
And 2 more authors.
Applied Radiation and Isotopes | Year: 2011
Introduction: Novel 1-hydroxy-1,1-bisphosphonates derived from indazole and substituted at the C-3 position were labeled with the radionuclides 46Sc and 153Sm. Several parameters such as molar ligand concentration, pH, reaction time and temperature were studied. The radiolabelling yield, reaction kinetics and stability were assessed and radiocomplexes were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods: The radionuclides 46Sc and 153Sm were obtained by neutron irradiation of natural Sc2O3 and enriched 152Sm2O3 (98.4%) targets at the neutron flux of 3×1014ncm-2s-1. The radiolabelling yield, reaction kinetics and stability were accomplished by ascending instant thin layer chromatography. The radiocomplexes were submitted to in vitro experiments (hydroxyapatite binding and lipophilicity) and biodistribution studies in animal models. Results: The radionuclides 46Sc and 153Sm were produced with specific activities of 100 and 430MBqmg-1, respectively. High radiochemical yields were achieved and the hydrophilic radiocomplexes have shown high degree of binding to hydroxyapatite. Biodistribution studies at 1, 3 and 24h of the 4 radiocomplexes under study, have showed a similar biodistribution profile with a relatively high bone uptake, slow clearance from blood and a very slow rate of total radioactivity excretion from the whole animal body. Conclusion: We have developed a new class of indazolebisphosphonates complexes with radioisotopes of samarium and scandium. All complexes have shown high degree of binding to hydroxyapatite, which could be attributed to the ionized phosphonate groups. The bone uptake and the bone-to-muscle ratios were relatively low. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Duartea L.F.,University of Coimbra |
Teixeira F.C.,National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation |
Faustoa R.,University of Coimbra
Arkivoc | Year: 2010
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a class of drugs widely used in the treatment of several metabolic bone disorders associated with increased bone resorption. Although BPs can directly inhibit the cellular activity of osteoclasts, their ability to adsorb on bone mineral is also an important factor in determining their potency and duration of action. In this study, we performed a molecular mechanics analysis of the molecular structures of 18 novel hydroxy-and aminobisphosphonates and examined their interactions with hydroxyapatite. From the calculated interaction energies, general rules were extracted relating structural characteristics of BPs and their affinities to the mineral. The results obtained were shown to be in agreement with in vitro and in vivo studies performed for some of the studied BPs.
Marceloa T.,National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation |
Mascarenhas J.,National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation |
Oliveira F.A.C.,National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2010
The present paper focus on preliminary work carried out at INETI concerning the use of microwave radiation applied to sintering of both ceramic and metal powders. Due to the characteristics of materials-radiation interaction, microwaves can become an interesting power source in powder technology and other processing routes, since it is possible to lower the sintering temperature and shorten the sintering cycles, leading to time and energy savings. Alumina, hydroxyapatite, titanium and stainless steel powder compacts were sintered in a modified commercial oven of 2.45GHz and 1000W nominal power. Microwave susceptors were used to enable temperature rise during the initial stage of the sintering cycles. Results on densification and microstructural evaluation of microwave sintered samples are reported and compared to conventionally sintered ones, when available. For similar porosity levels upon sintering, microwave radiation generally reduces sintering times from several hours to minutes. The results obtained so far are quite encouraging since in the case of alumina and stainless steel compacts, a decrease of about 200°C in the sintering temperature was achieved. It was also found that the green density plays a key role in the densification of both metallic and ceramic powders. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.
Bernardo M.,New University of Lisbon |
Lapa N.,New University of Lisbon |
Goncalves M.,New University of Lisbon |
Barbosa R.,New University of Lisbon |
And 3 more authors.
Waste Management | Year: 2010
Char residues produced in the co-pyrolysis of different wastes (plastics, pine biomass and used tyres) were characterized using chemical and toxicity assays. One part of the solid chars was submitted to extraction with dichloromethane (DCM) in order to reduce the toxicity of the char residues by removing organic contaminants. The different volatility fractions present in the extracted char (Char A) and in the raw char (Char B) were determined by progressive weight loss combustion. A selected group of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Hg and As) was determined in both chars. The chars were subjected to the leaching test ISO/TS 21268 - 2, 2007 and the resulting eluates were further characterized by determining a group of inorganic parameters (pH, conductivity, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Hg and As contents) and the concentrations of several organic contaminants (volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and alkyl phenols). An ecotoxicological characterization was also performed by using the bio-indicator Vibrio fischeri. The chemical and ecotoxicological results were analyzed according to the Council Decision 2003/33/CE and the criteria on the evaluation methods of waste ecotoxicity (CEMWE). The results obtained in this work indicated that the extraction with DCM is an effective method for the removal of organic contaminants of high to medium volatility from pyrolysis solid residues, thus decreasing their toxicity potential. Zn can be leached from the chars even after the DCM extraction treatment and can contribute to the ecotoxicity of the eluates obtained from chars. Both chars (treated and non treated with DCM) were classified as hazardous and ecotoxic wastes. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.