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Rosso A.,National Institute of Economic and Social Research
Research Policy

Governments around the world want to develop their ICT industries. Researchers and policymakers thus need a clear picture of digital businesses, but conventional datasets and typologies tend to lag real-world change. We use innovative 'big data' resources to perform an alternative analysis for all active companies in the UK, focusing on ICT-producing firms. Exploiting a combination of observed and modelled variables, we develop a novel 'sector-product' approach and use text mining to provide further detail on key sector-product cells. We find that the ICT production space is around 42% larger than SIC-based estimates, with around 70,000 more companies. We also find ICT employment shares over double the conventional estimates, although this result is more speculative. Our findings are robust to various scope, selection and sample construction challenges. We use our experiences to reflect on the broader pros and cons of frontier data use. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Weale M.,National Institute of Economic and Social Research
Journal of Health Economics

This paper uses the English Longitudinal Survey of Ageing to explore the self-reported effect of cataract operations on eye-sight. A non-parametric analysis shows clearly that most cataract patients report improved eye-sight after surgery and a parametric analysis provides further information: it shows that the beneficial effect is larger the worse was self-reported eye-sight preceding surgery so that those with very good or excellent eye-sight do not derive immediate benefit. Nevertheless, the long-run effect is suggested to be beneficial. Calibrating the results to existing studies of the effect of imperfect eye-sight on quality of life, the impact of cataract operations on Quality Adjusted Life Years is found to be similar to that established in previous studies and well above the costs of cataract operations in most circumstances. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Venturini F.,University of Perugia | Venturini F.,National Institute of Economic and Social Research
Research Policy

This paper studies the role of technology spillovers in productivity growth of OECD countries looking at investments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Research & Development (R&D). We find that both forms of technologically advanced capital (ICT and R&D) influence total factor productivity (TFP) over the long run: the former effect derives from externalities related to the use of ICT capital, the latter from knowledge spillovers generated by research performed to produce ICT goods. These findings are robust to controlling for import penetration of ICT products and the underlying R&D. Our evidence suggests that: (i) investing in ICT capital delivers significant productivity benefits, (ii) domestic production of ICT goods is source of important knowledge spillovers, and that (iii) in terms of TFP gains a low degree of industry specialization in information technology cannot be compensated by a country's trade openness, i.e., by importing ICT goods. These results help to explain trends in high-tech specialization and international trade. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Hermannsson K.,University of Strathclyde | Lisenkova K.,National Institute of Economic and Social Research | McGregor P.G.,University of Strathclyde | Kim Swales J.,University of Strathclyde
Environment and Planning A

Comparing each of the higher education institutions (HEIs) as a separate sector in the Scottish input-output table suggests that their expenditure patterns are homogenous and that any apparent heterogeneity in their conventional demand impacts depends primarily on scale. However, a disaggregation of their income by source reveals a disparity in their degree of dependence upon funding from the devolved Scottish Government. Acknowledging the binding budget constraint of the Scottish Government, and deriving balanced-expenditure multipliers, reveals large differences in the net-expenditure impact of HEIs upon the Scottish economy, with the source of variation being the origin of income. Applying a novel treatment of student expenditure impacts through identifying the amount of exogenous spending per student further increases the heterogeneity of the overall expenditure effects. These issues have particular importance for many governments facing increasing pressure to reduce their overall budgets. © 2013 Pion and its Licensors. Source

Dorsett R.,National Institute of Economic and Social Research | Robins P.K.,University of Miami
Evaluation Review

Background: The United Kingdom Employment Retention and Advancement(U.K. ERA) demonstration was the largest and most comprehensivesocial experiment ever conducted in the United Kingdom. It examined theextent to which a combination of postemployment advisory support andfinancial incentives could help lone parents on welfare to find sustainedemployment with prospects for advancement. ERA was experimentally testedacross more than 50 public employment service offices and, within eachoffice, individuals were randomly assigned to either a program (or treatment)group (eligible for ERA) or a control group (not eligible). Method: Thisarticle presents the results of a multilevel nonexperimental analysis thatexamines the variation in office-level impacts and attempts to understandwhat services provided in the offices tend to be associated with impacts.Result: The analysis suggests that impacts were greater in offices thatemphasized in-work advancement, support while working and financialbonuses for sustained employment, and also in those offices that assignedmore caseworkers to ERA participants. Offices that encouraged further educationhad smaller employment impacts. Conclusion: Plausible results areobtained identifying those particular implementation features that tendedto be linked to stronger impacts of ERA. The methodology employed alsoallows the identification of which services are associated with employmentand welfare receipt of control families receiving benefits under the traditionalNew Deal for Lone Parent program. © The Author(s) 2014. Source

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