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Landa Rivera G.,Paris Observatory | Reynes F.,Paris Observatory | Reynes F.,Applied Scientific Research | Islas Cortes I.,National Institute of Ecology and Climate Change INECC | And 2 more authors.
Energy Policy | Year: 2016

This paper simulates the medium- and long-term impact of proposed and expected energy policy on the environment and on the Mexican economy. The analysis has been conducted with a Multi-sector Macroeconomic Model for the Evaluation of Environmental and Energy policy (Three-ME). This model is well suited for policy assessment purposes in the context of developing economies as it indicates the transitional effects of policy intervention. Three-ME estimates the carbon tax required to meet emissions reduction targets within the Mexican "Climate Change Law", and assesses alternative policy scenarios, each reflecting a different strategy for the recycling of tax revenues. With no compensation, the taxation policy would reduce CO2 emissions by more than 75% by 2050 with respect to Business as Usual (BAU), but at high economic costs. Under full redistribution of carbon tax revenues, a double dividend arises: the policy appears beneficial both in terms of GDP and CO2 emissions reduction. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Benitez-Garcia S.E.,Ehime University | Kanda,Ehime University | Okazaki Y.,Ehime University | Wakamatsu S.,Ehime University | And 5 more authors.
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2015

In the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), ozone (O3) concentration is still higher than in other urban areas in developed countries. In order to reveal the current state of photochemical air pollution and to provide data for validation of chemical transport models, vertical profiles of meteorological parameters and ozone concentrations were measured by ozonesonde in two field campaigns: the first one, during the change of season from wet to dry-cold (November 2011) and the second during the drywarm season (March 2012). Unlike previous similar field campaigns, ozonesonde was launched twice daily. The observation data were used to analyze the production and distribution of ozone in the convective boundary layer. The observation days covered a wide range of meteorological conditions, and various profiles were obtained. The evolution of the mixing layer (ML) height was analyzed, revealing that ML evolution was faster during daytime in March 2012 than in November 2011. On a day in November 2011, the early-morning strong wind and the resulting vertical mixing was observed to have brought the high-ozone-concentration air-mass to the ground and caused relatively high surface ozone concentration in the morning. The amount of produced ozone in the MCMA was estimated by taking the difference between the two profiles on each day. In addition to the well-known positive correlation between daily maximum temperature and ozone production, effect of the ML height and wind stagnation was identified for a day in March 2012 when the maximum ground-level ozone concentration was observed during the two field campaigns. The relatively low ventilation coefficient in the morning and the relatively high value in the afternoon on this day implied efficient accumulation of the O3 precursors and rapid production of O3 in the ML. Source


Benitez-Garcia S.E.,Ehime University | Okazaki Y.,Ehime University | Wakamatsu S.,Ehime University | Basaldud R.,National Institute of Ecology and Climate Change INECC | And 4 more authors.
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2015

In the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), ozone (O3) concentration is still higher than in other urban areas in developed countries. In order to reveal the current state of photochemical air pollution and to provide data for validation of chemical transport models, vertical profiles of meteorological parameters and ozone concentrations were measured by ozonesonde in two field campaigns: the first one, during the change of season from wet to dry-cold (November 2011) and the second during the drywarm season (March 2012). Unlike previous similar field campaigns, ozonesonde was launched twice daily. The observation data were used to analyze the production and distribution of ozone in the convective boundary layer. The observation days covered a wide range of meteorological conditions, and various profiles were obtained. The evolution of the mixing layer (ML) height was analyzed, revealing that ML evolution was faster during daytime in March 2012 than in November 2011. On a day in November 2011, the early-morning strong wind and the resulting vertical mixing was observed to have brought the high-ozone-concentration air-mass to the ground and caused relatively high surface ozone concentration in the morning. The amount of produced ozone in the MCMA was estimated by taking the difference between the two profiles on each day. In addition to the well-known positive correlation between daily maximum temperature and ozone production, effect of the ML height and wind stagnation was identified for a day in March 2012 when the maximum ground-level ozone concentration was observed during the two field campaigns. The relatively low ventilation coefficient in the morning and the relatively high value in the afternoon on this day implied efficient accumulation of the O3 precursors and rapid production of O3 in the ML. Source


Kanda I.,Ehime University | Basaldud R.,National Institute of Ecology and Climate Change INECC | Horikoshi N.,INC Research | Okazaki Y.,Ehime University | And 5 more authors.
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014

An abnormal decrease in ozonesonde sensor signal occurred during air-pollution study campaigns in November 2011 and March 2012 in Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Sharp drops in sensor signal around 5 km above sea level and above were observed in November 2011, and a reduction of signal over a broad range of altitude was observed in the convective boundary layer in March 2012. Circumstantial evidence indicated that SO2 gas interfered with the electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozone sensors in the ozonesonde and that this interference was the cause of the reduced sensor signal output. The sharp drops in November 2011 were attributed to the SO2 plume from Popocatépetl volcano southeast of MCMA. Experiments on the response of the ECC sensor to representative atmospheric trace gases showed that only SO2 could cause the observed abrupt drops in sensor signal. The vertical profile of the plume reproduced by a Lagrangian particle diffusion simulation supported this finding. A nearground reduction in the sensor signal in March 2012 was attributed to an SO2 plume from the Tula industrial complex north-west of MCMA. Before and at the time of ozonesonde launch, intermittent high SO2 concentrations were recorded at ground-level monitoring stations north of MCMA. The difference between the O3 concentration measured by the ozonesonde and that recorded by a UV-based O3 monitor was consistent with the SO2 concentration recorded by a UV-based monitor on the ground. The vertical profiles of the plumes estimated by Lagrangian particle diffusion simulation agreed fairly well with the observed profile. Statistical analysis of the wind field in MCMA revealed that the effect Popocatépetl was most likely to have occurred from June to October, whereas the effect of the industries north of MCMA, including the Tula complex, was predicted to occur throughout the year. Source

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