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Justa Neves D.B.D.,National Institute of Criminalistics | Caldas E.D.,University of Brasilia
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

The objectives of this work were to evaluate current legislation on dietary supplements in the United States, the European Union and Brazil, and the profile of adulterated and/or irregular products on these markets. Due to a less restrictive legal framework, a supplement product that is freely available in the US may be considered a drug or even be proscribed in the EU and Brazil, thus giving rise to a clandestine market based on smuggling. From 2007 to 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration reported 572 cases of supplement adulterations in the country, mainly products for sexual enhancement (41.6%). Data from the European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed showed 929 adulterations during the same period, over 40% due to unauthorized ingredients or undeclared medicines. From 2007 to 2013, the Brazilian Federal Police Department seized 5470 supplement products, 92.2% with an American-declared origin. Qualitative chemical analyses performed on 2898 products found 180 adulterations, 41.1% due to undeclared drugs, mainly anabolic steroids, anorectics and products for erectile dysfunction, all considered medicines in Brazil. Educating the public regarding the potential risks they are taking when consuming adulterated or irregular products is necessary to protect the health of consumers. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Assis A.M.L.,National Institute of Criminalistics | Assis A.M.L.,Federal University of Alagoas | Azevedo D.A.,Federal University of Alagoas | Souza G.R.B.,Federal University of Alagoas | And 2 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series | Year: 2011

Through analysis of 15 Y-SNP markers by applying the SNaPshot (Applied Biosystems) method, this study revealed the genetic composition and origin of paternal lineages of 209 male individuals belonging to nine Afro-derived isolated communities in Alagoas, Brazil. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Prieto L.,University Institute of Research in Forensic science | Alves C.,University of Porto | Zimmermann B.,Innsbruck Medical University | Tagliabracci A.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 29 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2013

The GHEP-ISFG Working Group performed a collaborative exercise to monitor the current practice of mitochondrial (mt)DNA reporting. The participating laboratories were invited to evaluate a hypothetical case example and assess the statistical significance of a match between the haplotypes of a case (hair) sample and a suspect. A total of 31 forensic laboratories participated of which all but one used the EMPOP database. Nevertheless, we observed a tenfold range of reported LR values (32-333.4), which was mainly due to the selection of different reference datasets in EMPOP but also due to different applied formulae. The results suggest the need for more standardization as well as additional research to harmonize the reporting of mtDNA evidence. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Hoelz B.W.P.,National Institute of Criminalistics | Ralha C.G.,University of Brasilia
Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing | Year: 2013

Most tools used during the forensic examination process emphasize data and metadata extraction without a formal definition of the concepts used in their outputs. These vary not only in the terminology used, but also in the way values are represented. These differences hinder the adoption of computer-assisted analysis, since the elements to be analyzed are not well-defined, requiring ad hoc parsers to process and interpret the output of each tool. A framework for semantic annotation of digital evidence is presented in this work. Semantic annotations use concepts that are defined in an ontology to describe the annotated object. They can replace raw metadata, user-defined labels and tool-specific analysis results with computer-readable, formally defined terms that can be used in semantically advanced queries. The framework's components provide means to extract, analyze and index the contents of the digital evidence. The framework allows the augmentation of a base ontology, by adding domain and case-specific concepts to it. A prototype implementation is described and a case study is conducted to illustrate its potential uses and improvements to the forensic examination process. Copyright 2013 ACM. Source

Sanvido G.B.,University of Campinas | Garcia J.S.,University of Campinas | Garcia J.S.,Federal University of Alfenas | Corilo Y.E.,University of Campinas | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Direct-infusion electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry [ESI(+)-MS] of several milk powder samples, confiscated by the Brazilian Federal Police, showed ions accounting for sodiated and potassiated molecules of disaccharides (m/z 365 and 381) as well as trisaccharides (m/z 527 and 543), whereas monosaccharide ions were not detected. The trisaccharide ions were not detected in samples of genuine milk powder, raising the suspicion that their presence indicates adulteration by the addition of maltodextrin. In control samples, maltose and maltotriose were hydrolyzed by α-glucosidase and not β-galactosidase, whereas lactose was resistant to α-glucosidase but was hydrolyzed with β-galactosidase. Samples suspected of being adulterated behaved in the same fashion, confirming the presence of maltose and maltotriose or maltodextrin. Direct-infusion ESI-MS is shown therefore to provide rapid screening of milk powder for adulteration with maltodextrin, whereas its combination with selective enzymatic hydrolysis provides highly reliable confirmation for unambiguous results. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

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