National Institute of Criminalistics

Brasília, Brazil

National Institute of Criminalistics

Brasília, Brazil
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Neves D.B.D.J.,National Institute of Criminalistics | Caldas E.D.,University of Brasilia
Forensic Science International | Year: 2017

The use of counterfeit or substandard medicines can have an important health impact, resulting in therapeutic failure, be toxic or even cause death. Anabolic steroids are a frequent target for counterfeiters worldwide, being the second most frequent counterfeited class in Brazil. The aims of this work were to optimize and validate a GC–MS method for the quantitative determination of anabolic steroids in tablet, aqueous suspension and oil solution forms, and to analyze pharmaceutical products sent to Brazilian Federal Police (BFP) for forensic analysis. Sample preparation included extraction with methanol in ultrasonic bath followed by centrifugation. The method was successfully validated and 345 samples of pharmaceutical products were analyzed (328 medicines and 17 dietary supplements). About 42% of the medicines were counterfeits, 28.7% of tablets, 12.0% of suspensions and 65.2% of oil solutions; 11% were considered substandards. Five dietary supplements contained undeclared anabolic steroids, including two containing methandrostenolone at 5.4 and 5.8 mg/capsule, equivalent to levels found in medicines. The proposed method is suitable for implementation in routine analysis for identification of counterfeits and substandard products. The analytical results show the need to raise awareness of consumers over the risks from the consumption of anabolic steroids from the clandestine market and for more incisive actions from government agencies aiming at decreasing the availability of these products. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Neves D.B.D.J.,National Institute of Criminalistics | Caldas E.D.,University of Brasilia
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2017

Caffeine is one of the most consumed stimulants in the world, and is a frequent ingredient of dietary supplements. The aims of this work were to validate a GC-MS method for the quantitation of caffeine and identification of other substances in supplements, mainly weight loss products, and to estimate the caffeine intake by consumers. Sample preparation included extraction with chloroform:water in ultrasonic bath, centrifugation and analysis of the organic layer for caffeine quantitation, and extraction with methanol for identification of other substances. A total of 213 samples of 52 supplement products not registered in Brazil and seized by the Brazilian Federal Police were analyzed. From the 109 samples that declared the amount of caffeine present, 26.6% contained more than 120% of the specified content. Considering the maximum recommended dose stated on the product labels, the consumption of 47.9% of the samples would lead to a daily intake of caffeine above the safe limit of 400 mg. Undeclared drugs, including sibutramine, phenolphthalein, amphepramone and femproporex were found in 28 samples. These results show that consumers of dietary supplements should be aware that these products might contain caffeine at levels that could represent potential health risks, in addition to undeclared pharmaceutical drugs. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Martins A.R.,University of Brasilia | Talhavini M.,National Institute of Criminalistics | Vieira M.L.,National Institute of Criminalistics | Zacca J.J.,National Institute of Criminalistics | Braga J.W.B.,University of Brasilia
Food Chemistry | Year: 2017

The discrimination of whisky brands and counterfeit identification were performed by UV–Vis spectroscopy combined with partial least squares for discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). In the proposed method all spectra were obtained with no sample preparation. The discrimination models were built with the employment of seven whisky brands: Red Label, Black Label, White Horse, Chivas Regal (12 years), Ballantine's Finest, Old Parr and Natu Nobilis. The method was validated with an independent test set of authentic samples belonging to the seven selected brands and another eleven brands not included in the training samples. Furthermore, seventy-three counterfeit samples were also used to validate the method. Results showed correct classification rates for genuine and false samples over 98.6% and 93.1%, respectively, indicating that the method can be helpful for the forensic analysis of whisky samples. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Eberlin L.S.,University of Campinas | Eberlin L.S.,Purdue University | Haddad R.,University of Campinas | Sarabia Neto R.C.,University of Campinas | And 11 more authors.
Analyst | Year: 2010

Using two desorption/ionization techniques (DESI and EASI) and Brazilian real, US$ dollar, and euro bills as proof-of-principle techniques and samples, direct analysis by ambient mass spectrometry is shown to function as an instantaneous, reproducible, and non-destructive method for chemical analysis of banknotes. Characteristic chemical profiles were observed for the authentic bills and for the counterfeit bills made using different printing processes (inkjet, laserjet, phaser and off-set printers). Detection of real-world counterfeit bills and identification of the counterfeiting method has also been demonstrated. Chemically selective 2D imaging of banknotes has also been used to confirm counterfeiting. The nature of some key diagnostic ions has also been investigated via high accuracy FTMS measurements. The general applicability of ambient MS analysis for anti-counterfeiting strategies particularly via the use of "invisible ink" markers is discussed. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.


Justa Neves D.B.D.,National Institute of Criminalistics | Caldas E.D.,University of Brasilia
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

The objectives of this work were to evaluate current legislation on dietary supplements in the United States, the European Union and Brazil, and the profile of adulterated and/or irregular products on these markets. Due to a less restrictive legal framework, a supplement product that is freely available in the US may be considered a drug or even be proscribed in the EU and Brazil, thus giving rise to a clandestine market based on smuggling. From 2007 to 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration reported 572 cases of supplement adulterations in the country, mainly products for sexual enhancement (41.6%). Data from the European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed showed 929 adulterations during the same period, over 40% due to unauthorized ingredients or undeclared medicines. From 2007 to 2013, the Brazilian Federal Police Department seized 5470 supplement products, 92.2% with an American-declared origin. Qualitative chemical analyses performed on 2898 products found 180 adulterations, 41.1% due to undeclared drugs, mainly anabolic steroids, anorectics and products for erectile dysfunction, all considered medicines in Brazil. Educating the public regarding the potential risks they are taking when consuming adulterated or irregular products is necessary to protect the health of consumers. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Miranda D.,National Institute of Criminalistics | Russo D.,National Institute of Criminalistics | Alves R.A.L.,National Institute of Criminalistics
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2012

Inteligeo, the Geospatial database of the Brazilian Federal Police Forensics Department, contains more than 800 layers and almost 7 million features. It was initially stored in a PostgreSQL database using the PostGIS 1.5 spatial extension. Most of the data in the system was obtained due to police intelligence field work and lacks standardization and metadata. Sometimes the data itself contains inaccuracies and topological errors. In some cases these errors are easily correctable but PostGIS 1.5 does not have tools to make these basic corrections automatically. Another common day-to-day task is calculating areas, distances and lengths. Since the standard spatial reference system is in geographical coordinates it was necessary to find a suitable projection for the area to obtain the measurements in metric units. PostGIS 1.5 does not have a tool to automatically choose an adequate projection. Looking into the newest PostGIS (subversion revision 7993 at the time), we realized that new functionality helped to solve several everyday problems and opened some possibilities regarding raster data. Among the most prominent features are: the geography support that enables distance and area calculations on the ellipsoid, the support for raster data and basic topological errors correction. As of October 2011, PostGIS 2.0 had not been released and was still under heavy development but already featured several improvements which motivated our early adoption. Early tests did not detect any major issue and demonstrated that PostGIS 2.0 was basically backwards compatible with PostGIS 1.5. Some minor bugs where reported by the federal police and quickly corrected by the developers. This work describes the installation requirements, the migration process, the caveats and back up procedures adopted by the federal police in our production database which is online since august 2011. PostGis 2.0 has been released in April 3rd 2012. This work is provided in the hope that it may be useful to anyone considering making the same transition. © 2012 ISPRS.


Hoelz B.W.P.,National Institute of Criminalistics | Ralha C.G.,University of Brasilia
Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing | Year: 2013

Most tools used during the forensic examination process emphasize data and metadata extraction without a formal definition of the concepts used in their outputs. These vary not only in the terminology used, but also in the way values are represented. These differences hinder the adoption of computer-assisted analysis, since the elements to be analyzed are not well-defined, requiring ad hoc parsers to process and interpret the output of each tool. A framework for semantic annotation of digital evidence is presented in this work. Semantic annotations use concepts that are defined in an ontology to describe the annotated object. They can replace raw metadata, user-defined labels and tool-specific analysis results with computer-readable, formally defined terms that can be used in semantically advanced queries. The framework's components provide means to extract, analyze and index the contents of the digital evidence. The framework allows the augmentation of a base ontology, by adding domain and case-specific concepts to it. A prototype implementation is described and a case study is conducted to illustrate its potential uses and improvements to the forensic examination process. Copyright 2013 ACM.


Sanvido G.B.,University of Campinas | Garcia J.S.,University of Campinas | Garcia J.S.,Federal University of Alfenas | Corilo Y.E.,University of Campinas | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Direct-infusion electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry [ESI(+)-MS] of several milk powder samples, confiscated by the Brazilian Federal Police, showed ions accounting for sodiated and potassiated molecules of disaccharides (m/z 365 and 381) as well as trisaccharides (m/z 527 and 543), whereas monosaccharide ions were not detected. The trisaccharide ions were not detected in samples of genuine milk powder, raising the suspicion that their presence indicates adulteration by the addition of maltodextrin. In control samples, maltose and maltotriose were hydrolyzed by α-glucosidase and not β-galactosidase, whereas lactose was resistant to α-glucosidase but was hydrolyzed with β-galactosidase. Samples suspected of being adulterated behaved in the same fashion, confirming the presence of maltose and maltotriose or maltodextrin. Direct-infusion ESI-MS is shown therefore to provide rapid screening of milk powder for adulteration with maltodextrin, whereas its combination with selective enzymatic hydrolysis provides highly reliable confirmation for unambiguous results. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


da Justa Neves D.B.,National Institute of Criminalistics | Marcheti R.G.A.,University of Brasilia | Caldas E.D.,University of Brasilia
Forensic Science International | Year: 2013

This retrospective study reports data obtained from the National Institute of Criminalistics of the Brazilian Federal Police Department (DPF) on 3676 anabolic products seized between 2006 and 2011. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) were declared on the labels of 96.2% of the products. About one third of the products declared to be from Paraguay, and 14.3% from Brazil. Stanozolol, testosterone and nandrolone were the substances most declared on the labels. Package and qualitative chemical analyses (performed on 2818 products) found that 31.7% of the seized products were counterfeit, with an increase in the counterfeit detection rate during the period. Almost half of the fake products did not contain the declared substances, and 28.3% had only non-declared substances. Testosterone and its esters were responsible for 45% of the 582 cases of non-declared drug detection. Package analysis alone was responsible for the identification of 4.6% of all counterfeit products. These results indicate the need for a continuous effort by the government aimed at decreasing the availability of these products in the country. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | National Institute of Criminalistics and University of Brasilia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP | Year: 2015

The objectives of this work were to evaluate current legislation on dietary supplements in the United States, the European Union and Brazil, and the profile of adulterated and/or irregular products on these markets. Due to a less restrictive legal framework, a supplement product that is freely available in the US may be considered a drug or even be proscribed in the EU and Brazil, thus giving rise to a clandestine market based on smuggling. From 2007 to 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration reported 572 cases of supplement adulterations in the country, mainly products for sexual enhancement (41.6%). Data from the European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed showed 929 adulterations during the same period, over 40% due to unauthorized ingredients or undeclared medicines. From 2007 to 2013, the Brazilian Federal Police Department seized 5470 supplement products, 92.2% with an American-declared origin. Qualitative chemical analyses performed on 2898 products found 180 adulterations, 41.1% due to undeclared drugs, mainly anabolic steroids, anorectics and products for erectile dysfunction, all considered medicines in Brazil. Educating the public regarding the potential risks they are taking when consuming adulterated or irregular products is necessary to protect the health of consumers.

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