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Kaur C.,St. Stephens Hospital | Chohan S.,St. Stephens Hospital | Khare S.,National Institute of Communicable Diseases | Puliyel J.M.,St. Stephens Hospital
Indian Pediatrics | Year: 2010

We studied the etiology of bronchiolitis in Delhi. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the most commonly isolated virus in 72/245 infants (30%). RSV positive cases did not have more severe disease; this argues against routine use of ribavirin. Source

Kumar V.,University of Delhi | Singh S.,National Institute of Communicable Diseases | Yadav C.S.,University of Delhi | Ahmed R.S.,University of Delhi | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP3A4 are important phase I xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes involved in the metabolism of numbers of toxins, endogenous hormones and pharmaceutical drugs. Polymorphisms in these phase I genes can alter enzyme activity and are known to be associated with cancer susceptibility related to environmental toxins and hormone exposure. Their genotypes may also display ethnicity dependent population frequencies. The present study was aimed to determine the frequencies of commonly known functional polymorphisms of CYP1A1 and CYP3A4 in North Indian population. Allelic frequency of CYP1A1 polymorphisms, m1, m2 and m4 were observed to be 40.3, 31.2 and 0% respectively. Frequency of CYP3A41B polymorphism was 0%. We observed inter as well as intra ethnic variation in the distribution of frequency of these polymorphisms. Analysis of polymorphisms in these genes might help in predicting the risk of cancer. Our results emphasize the need for more such studies in " high risk populations" © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Kumar V.,University of Delhi | Yadav C.S.,University of Delhi | Singh S.,National Institute of Communicable Diseases | Goel S.,University of Delhi | And 4 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes are reported to be associated with the possible risk of prostate cancer. OCPs are endocrine disruptors (EDs) which may act by disrupting the physiologic function of endogenous hormones and therefore possibly increase prostate cancer risk. CYP1A1 metabolizes several carcinogens and estrogens, etc. and hence polymorphism of this gene has been reported to be associated with prostate cancer risk. We studied 70 newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients and 61 age-matched healthy male controls. OCP levels in blood were determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and CYP1A1 polymorphisms were analyzed by allele-specific PCR and RFLP-PCR methods. Significantly higher levels of β-HCH, γ-HCH and p,p'-DDE were found in cases as compared to controls (p-values=0.04, 0.008, and 0.01, respectively). Higher levels of γ-HCH were observed in advanced stages of prostate cancer cases (≤T2 vs ≥T3), (p-value=0.04). Dieldrin was found significantly higher in cases with initial stages (p-value=0.03). We did not observe any correlation between prostate cancer and CYP1A1 polymorphisms. Hence, higher level of OCPs, especially β-HCH, γ-HCH and p,p'-DDE might be associated with prostate cancer risk. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Tabassum H.,Jamia Hamdard University | Tabassum H.,University of Delhi | Tabassum H.,Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology | Parvez S.,Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology | And 3 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2010

Methotrexate (MTX) is a folic acid antagonist widely used as a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent for leukemia and other malignancies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the damage caused by MTX on liver mitochondria and its protection by using antioxidant properties of lipoic acid. MTX substantially affects mitochondrial function by reducing glutathione levels leading to disturbances in antioxidant enzyme defense system. Lipoic acid occurs naturally in mitochondria as a coenzyme. In various studies lipoic acid has been convincingly shown to exhibit an antioxidant role when supplemented exogenously. We studied the effect of lipoic acid pre-treatment on the toxicity of MTX in mouse liver mitochondria focusing specifically on the oxidative stress. MTX caused a significant rise in the mitochondrial lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl (PC) content and superoxide radical generation. It also affected the mitochondrial thiol profile. Pre-treatment of mice with lipoic acid (35. mg/kg) markedly lowered mitochondrial LPO, PC content and superoxide radical generation. It also restored decreased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants of mitochondria. It is suggested that lipoic acid has a potential role in suppressing MTX-induced mitochondrial toxicity, and it affords protection either by reversing the decline of antioxidants or by the directly scavenging the free radicals. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Mukhopadhyay A.K.,National Institute of Communicable Diseases | Tamizharasu W.,National Institute of Communicable Diseases | Satya B.P.,National Institute of Communicable Diseases | Chandra G.,University of Burdwan
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2010

Objective: To observe the effect of common salt (NaCl) on immature stages of laboratory reared Aedes aegypti (L). Methods: A laboratory colony of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes of Rajahmundry strain was established in the laboratory of National Institute for Communicable Disease (NICD), Rajahmundry unit at (26 ± 2) °C with relative humidity of (70 ± 10)%. 1.00%, 1.25% and 1.50% solutions of common salt (NaCl) were selected to observe the susceptibility status of immature stages of Aedes aegypti in laboratory. Results: Fifty percent larvae of Aedes aegypti died within 19, 31 and 48 hours when exposed to 1.50%, 1.25% and 1.00% common salt solution, respectively. Ninety percent of the larvae died within 29, 57 and 108 hours when exposed to the same salt solutions, respectively. Very high pupal mortality was observed varying from 81.8% to 40.0%. Formation of pupae was found inversely proportional in the presence of concentration of common salt in breeding water. Conclusions: With easy availability, less toxicity and long lasting nature, common salt may be applied in unused containers, especially in junkyards where surveillance mechanism is poor along with other conventional vector control methods in order to control breeding of Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever and chikungunya. © 2010 Hainan Medical College. Source

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