National Institute of Communicable Diseases

Delhi, India

National Institute of Communicable Diseases

Delhi, India
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Mukhopadhyay A.K.,National Institute of Communicable Diseases | Tamizharasu W.,National Institute of Communicable Diseases | Satya B.P.,National Institute of Communicable Diseases | Chandra G.,University of Burdwan
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2010

Objective: To observe the effect of common salt (NaCl) on immature stages of laboratory reared Aedes aegypti (L). Methods: A laboratory colony of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes of Rajahmundry strain was established in the laboratory of National Institute for Communicable Disease (NICD), Rajahmundry unit at (26 ± 2) °C with relative humidity of (70 ± 10)%. 1.00%, 1.25% and 1.50% solutions of common salt (NaCl) were selected to observe the susceptibility status of immature stages of Aedes aegypti in laboratory. Results: Fifty percent larvae of Aedes aegypti died within 19, 31 and 48 hours when exposed to 1.50%, 1.25% and 1.00% common salt solution, respectively. Ninety percent of the larvae died within 29, 57 and 108 hours when exposed to the same salt solutions, respectively. Very high pupal mortality was observed varying from 81.8% to 40.0%. Formation of pupae was found inversely proportional in the presence of concentration of common salt in breeding water. Conclusions: With easy availability, less toxicity and long lasting nature, common salt may be applied in unused containers, especially in junkyards where surveillance mechanism is poor along with other conventional vector control methods in order to control breeding of Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever and chikungunya. © 2010 Hainan Medical College.

Beig F.K.,Aligarh Muslim University | Malik A.,Aligarh Muslim University | Rizvi M.,Aligarh Muslim University | Acharya D.,Aligarh Muslim University | Khare S.,National Institute of Communicable Diseases
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Objectives: To study the etiology of viral encephalitis (VE) in the children of western Uttar Pradesh, India and to assess the clinico-epidemiological profile of these children in relation to VE. Methods: Both cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples were collected from pediatric patients suffering from encephalitis hospitalized at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh from July 2004 to November 2006. Viral isolation was done on RD cells, HEp-2 cells, and Vero cells from the cerebrospinal fluid samples of children with suspected VE. A microneutralization test was performed for enterovirus 71. An enzyme immunoassay for IgM antibodies was performed for measles virus, mumps virus, varicella zoster virus, herpes simplex virus 1, and Japanese encephalitis virus. Results: Eighty-seven patients were enrolled in the study. The most common etiology of VE was enterovirus 71 (42.1%), followed by measles (21.1%), varicella zoster virus (15.8%), herpes simplex virus (10.5%), and mumps (10.5%). Japanese encephalitis virus was not found in any case. Enterovirus 71 infection caused significant morbidity in children; mortality occurred in 50%. A preponderance of cases occurred in December. In our study generalized convulsions along with altered sensorium were the significant findings in patients with VE. Conclusions: Enterovirus 71, the major etiology of VE in our study, was associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Such studies should be conducted frequently to assess the role of emerging VE in different regions. © 2010.

Kumar V.,University of Delhi | Singh S.,National Institute of Communicable Diseases | Yadav C.S.,University of Delhi | Ahmed R.S.,University of Delhi | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP3A4 are important phase I xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes involved in the metabolism of numbers of toxins, endogenous hormones and pharmaceutical drugs. Polymorphisms in these phase I genes can alter enzyme activity and are known to be associated with cancer susceptibility related to environmental toxins and hormone exposure. Their genotypes may also display ethnicity dependent population frequencies. The present study was aimed to determine the frequencies of commonly known functional polymorphisms of CYP1A1 and CYP3A4 in North Indian population. Allelic frequency of CYP1A1 polymorphisms, m1, m2 and m4 were observed to be 40.3, 31.2 and 0% respectively. Frequency of CYP3A41B polymorphism was 0%. We observed inter as well as intra ethnic variation in the distribution of frequency of these polymorphisms. Analysis of polymorphisms in these genes might help in predicting the risk of cancer. Our results emphasize the need for more such studies in " high risk populations" © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Patel M.K.,Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology | Patel M.K.,National Physical Laboratory India | Solanki P.R.,National Physical Laboratory India | Kumar A.,Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology | And 4 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2010

Meningitis sensor based on nucleic acid probe of Neisseria meningitidis has been fabricated by immobilization of 5'-thiol end labeled single stranded deoxyribonucleic acid probe (ssDNA-SH) onto gold (Au) coated glass electrode. This ssDNA-SH/Au electrode hybridized with the genomic DNA (G-dsDNA/Au) and amplified DNA (PCR-dsDNA/Au) has been characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and electrochemical techniques. The ssDNA-SH/Au electrode can specifically detect upto 10-60ng/μl of G-dsDNA-SH/Au and PCR-dsDNA-SH/Au of meningitis within 60s of hybridization time at 25°C by cyclic voltammetry (CV) using methylene blue (MB) as electro-active DNA hybridization indicator. The values of sensitivities of the G-dsDNA-SH/Au and PCR-dsDNA-SH/Au electrodes have been determined as 0.0115μA/ngcm-2 and 0.0056μA/ngcm-2, respectively with regression coefficient (R) as 0.999. This DNA bioelectrode is stable for about 4 months when stored at 4°C. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Kumar V.,University of Delhi | Yadav C.S.,University of Delhi | Singh S.,National Institute of Communicable Diseases | Goel S.,University of Delhi | And 4 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes are reported to be associated with the possible risk of prostate cancer. OCPs are endocrine disruptors (EDs) which may act by disrupting the physiologic function of endogenous hormones and therefore possibly increase prostate cancer risk. CYP1A1 metabolizes several carcinogens and estrogens, etc. and hence polymorphism of this gene has been reported to be associated with prostate cancer risk. We studied 70 newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients and 61 age-matched healthy male controls. OCP levels in blood were determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and CYP1A1 polymorphisms were analyzed by allele-specific PCR and RFLP-PCR methods. Significantly higher levels of β-HCH, γ-HCH and p,p'-DDE were found in cases as compared to controls (p-values=0.04, 0.008, and 0.01, respectively). Higher levels of γ-HCH were observed in advanced stages of prostate cancer cases (≤T2 vs ≥T3), (p-value=0.04). Dieldrin was found significantly higher in cases with initial stages (p-value=0.03). We did not observe any correlation between prostate cancer and CYP1A1 polymorphisms. Hence, higher level of OCPs, especially β-HCH, γ-HCH and p,p'-DDE might be associated with prostate cancer risk. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Kaur C.,St Stephens Hospital | Chohan S.,St Stephens Hospital | Khare S.,National Institute of Communicable Diseases | Puliyel J.M.,St Stephens Hospital
Indian Pediatrics | Year: 2010

We studied the etiology of bronchiolitis in Delhi. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the most commonly isolated virus in 72/245 infants (30%). RSV positive cases did not have more severe disease; this argues against routine use of ribavirin.

Chaudhary M.,National Institute of Communicable Diseases | Gupta S.,National Institute of Communicable Diseases | Khare S.,National Institute of Communicable Diseases | Lal S.,National Institute of Communicable Diseases
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2010

HIV and tuberculosis co-infection interact in fundamentally important ways. This interaction is evident patho-physiologically, clinically and epidemiologically. There are several differences between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients with tuberculosis (TB) that have practical diagnostic implications. TB is more likely to be disseminated in nature and more difficult to diagnose by conventional diagnostic procedures as immunosuppression progresses. As TB rates continue to increase in HIV-endemic regions, improved diagnostic techniques merit consideration as TB-control strategies. There is a need to develop more user friendly techniques, which can be adapted for use in the high-burden and low-income countries. This review focuses on the diagnostic challenges in HIV-TB co-infection with an update on the current techniques and future prospects in an era of HIV pandemic.

Tabassum H.,Jamia Hamdard University | Tabassum H.,University of Delhi | Tabassum H.,Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology | Parvez S.,Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology | And 3 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2010

Methotrexate (MTX) is a folic acid antagonist widely used as a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent for leukemia and other malignancies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the damage caused by MTX on liver mitochondria and its protection by using antioxidant properties of lipoic acid. MTX substantially affects mitochondrial function by reducing glutathione levels leading to disturbances in antioxidant enzyme defense system. Lipoic acid occurs naturally in mitochondria as a coenzyme. In various studies lipoic acid has been convincingly shown to exhibit an antioxidant role when supplemented exogenously. We studied the effect of lipoic acid pre-treatment on the toxicity of MTX in mouse liver mitochondria focusing specifically on the oxidative stress. MTX caused a significant rise in the mitochondrial lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl (PC) content and superoxide radical generation. It also affected the mitochondrial thiol profile. Pre-treatment of mice with lipoic acid (35. mg/kg) markedly lowered mitochondrial LPO, PC content and superoxide radical generation. It also restored decreased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants of mitochondria. It is suggested that lipoic acid has a potential role in suppressing MTX-induced mitochondrial toxicity, and it affords protection either by reversing the decline of antioxidants or by the directly scavenging the free radicals. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Kakar S.,Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Hospital | Bhalla P.,Maulana Azad Medical College | Maria A.,National Institute of Communicable Diseases | Rana M.,Maulana Azad Medical College | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2010

Chlamydia trachomatis is considered a major aetiological agent of conjunctivitis in newborns. The objective of the present study was to determine the aetiology of neonatal conjunctivitis and clinico-epidemiological correlates of chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum. Fifty-eight newborns with signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis were studied. Conjunctival specimens were subjected to Gram staining, routine bacteriological culture, culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) staining for diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection. C. trachomatis was detected in 18 (31%) neonates. Findings suggest that since C. trachomatis is the most common cause of neonatal conjunctivitis, routine screening and treatment of genital C. trachomatis infection in pregnant women and early diagnosis and treatment of neonatal Chlamydial conjunctivitis may be considered for its prevention and control.

PubMed | National Institute of Communicable Diseases
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of communicable diseases | Year: 2013

Since introduction of the pertussis vaccine in 1940s the morbidity and mortality due to the infection has been markedly reduced all over the world. However the adverse effects of the inactivated whole cell pertussis vaccine like pain, swelling at the site of injection, fever, vomiting anorexia, persistent crying & drowsiness have been the cause of great concern, till date. Also the safety concerns over the use of thiomersal as an inactivating agent as well preservative have been raised in the recent past. Studies in many countries have been initiated to reduce or replace thiomersal & using other inactivating agents in the vaccines. Limited studies have been conducted in India. The present study has been undertaken as an attempt to reduce the quantity of thiomersal and modification in the procedure of production of the pertussis vaccine to reduce the toxicity, to produce better quality of whole cell pertussis vaccine. To achieve this, at the time of production of the whole cell pertussis vaccine, at Kasauli, as per the standard procedure recommended by WHO, three parallel batches of the pertussis culture were inactivated in fermenter before harvesting and thiomersal was used only one time for suspending the bacterial mass after harvesting. The resultant modified vaccine so prepared when tested showed that it was of better quality as compared to the one produced by standard procedure, when tested in mice.

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