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Castel Guelfo di Bologna, Italy

de Lazzari C.,R.O.S.A. | de Lazzari C.,National Institute of Cardiovascular Research
Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2012

Mathematical modelling of the cardiovascular system (CVS) can help in understanding the complex interactions between both the ventricles and the septum. By describing the behaviour of the left (right) ventricular free wall, atria and septum using the variable elastance models, it is possible to reproduce their interactions. By relating the mechanical properties of both atria and both ventricles to the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal, it is possible to analyse the effects produced by different ECG delay on haemodynamic parameters. In the cardiovascular field, the incorrect interactions between septum and both ventricular free walls are based on many pathological conditions, i.e. symptomatic heart failure resulting from systolic dysfunction, ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, and so on. The possible corrections that can be induced on the QRS complex duration in the ECG signal (i.e. cardiac resynchronisation therapy, CRT) can produce benefits improving the clinical status of the patient. The aim of this work was to evaluate, using our numerical simulator of the CVS, the effects induced on coronary blood flow (CBF) and aortic pressure using different ECG times, intra-ventricular and inter-ventricular delays. The results were obtained by reproducing the circulatory baseline and CRT conditions of seven patients described in literature. Haemodynamic simulated results are in accordance with literature data. Also the controversial results on CBF, in presence of CRT, are consistent with those described in the literature. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Quintieri A.M.,University of Calabria | Filice E.,University of Calabria | Amelio D.,University of Calabria | Pasqua T.,University of Calabria | And 11 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2016

Background and aims: Obesity is often associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. The food industry and the associated research activities focus on formulating products that are a perfect mix between an adequate fat content and health. We evaluated whether a diet enriched with Bio-Oil Spread (SD), an olive oil-based innovative food, is cardioprotective in the presence of high-fat diet (HFD)-dependent obesity. Methods and Results: Rats were fed for 16 weeks with normolipidic diet (ND; fat: 6.2%), HFD (fat: 42%), and ND enriched with SD (6.2% of fat + 35.8% of SD). Metabolic and anthropometric parameters were measured. Heart and liver structures were analyzed by histochemical examination. Ischemic susceptibility was evaluated on isolated and Langendorff-perfused cardiac preparations. Signaling was assessed by Western blotting. Compared to ND rats, HFD rats showed increased body weight and abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance. Morphological analyses showed that HFD is associated with heart and liver modifications (hypertrophy and steatosis, respectively), lesser evident in the SD group, together with metabolic and anthropometric alterations. In particular, IGF-1R immunodetection revealed a reduction of hypertrophy in SD heart sections. Notably, SD diet significantly reduced myocardial susceptibility against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) with respect to HFD through the activation of survival signals (Akt, ERK1/2, and Bcl2). Systolic and diastolic performance was preserved in the SD group. Conclusions: We suggest that SD may contribute to the prevention of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular alterations typical of severe obesity induced by an HFD, including the increased ischemic susceptibility of the myocardium. Our results pave the way to evaluate the introduction of SD in human alimentary guidelines as a strategy to reduce saturated fat intake. © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Source

Pasqua T.,University of Calabria | Filice E.,University of Calabria | Mazza R.,University of Calabria | Quintieri A.M.,University of Calabria | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2015

Heat shock proteins (HSPs), highly conserved in all organisms, act as molecular chaperones activated by several stresses. The HSP70 class of stress-induced proteins is the most studied subtype in cardiovascular and inflammatory disease. Because of the high similarity between plant and mammalian HSP70, the aim of this work was to evaluate whether recombinant HSP70 of plant origin (r-AtHSP70) was able to protect rat cardiac and hepatic function under ischemic and sepsis conditions. We demonstrated for the first time that, in ex vivo isolated and perfused rat heart, exogenous r-AtHSP70 exerted direct negative inotropic and lusitropic effects via Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway, induced post-conditioning cardioprotection via Reperfusion Injury Salvage Kinase and Survivor Activating Factor Enhancement pathways, and did not cause hepatic damage. In vivo administration of r-AtHSP70 protected both heart and liver against lipopolysaccharide-dependent sepsis, as revealed by the reduced plasma levels of interleukin-1β, tumour necrosis factor alpha, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. These results suggest exogenous r-AtHSP70 as a molecular modulator able to protect myocardial function and to prevent cardiac and liver dysfunctions during inflammatory conditions. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Imbrogno S.,University of Calabria | Gattuso A.,University of Calabria | Mazza R.,University of Calabria | Angelone T.,University of Calabria | And 3 more authors.
Acta Physiologica | Year: 2015

Recent cardiovascular research showed that, together with β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors (ARs), β3-ARs contribute to the catecholamine (CA)-dependent control of the heart. β3-ARs structure, function and ligands were investigated in mammals because of their applicative potential in human cardiovascular diseases. Only recently, the concept of a β3-AR-dependent cardiac modulation was extended to non-mammalian vertebrates, although information is still scarce and fragmentary. β3-ARs were structurally described in fish, showing a closer relationship to mammalian β1-AR than β2-AR. Functional β3-ARs are present in the cardiac tissue of teleosts and amphibians. As in mammals, activation of these receptors elicits a negative modulation of the inotropic performance through the involvement of the endothelium endocardium (EE), Gi/0 proteins and the nitric oxide (NO) signalling. This review aims to comparatively analyse data from literature on β3-ARs in mammals, with those on teleosts and amphibians. The purpose is to highlight aspects of uniformity and diversity of β3-ARs structure, ligands activity, function and signalling cascades throughout vertebrates. This may provide new perspectives aimed to clarify the biological relevance of β3-ARs in the context of the nervous and humoral control of the heart and its functional plasticity. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Pasqua T.,University of Calabria | Corti A.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Gentile S.,University of Calabria | Pochini L.,University of Calabria | And 8 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Plasma chromogranin-A (CgA) concentrations correlate with severe cardiovascular diseases, whereas CgAderived vasostatin-I and catestatin elicit cardiosuppression via an antiadrenergic/nitric oxide-cGMP mediated mechanism. Whether these phenomena are related is unknown.Wehere investigated whether and to what extent full-length CgA directly influences heart performance and may be subjected to stimuluselicited intracardiac processing. Using normotensive and hypertensive rats,weevaluated the following: 1) direct myocardial and coronary effects of full-length CgA; 2) the signal-transduction pathway involved in its action mechanism; and 3) CgA intracardiac processing after β-adrenergic [isoproterenol (Iso)]- and endothelin-1(ET-1)-dependent stimulation. The study was performed by using a Langendorff perfusion apparatus, Western blotting, affinity chromatography, and ELISA.Wefound that CgA (1-4 nM) dilated coronaries and induced negative inotropism and lusitropism, which disappeared at higher concentrations (10-16 nM). In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), negative inotropism and lusitropism were more potent than inyoungnormotensive rats.Wefound that perfusion itself, Iso-,andendothelin-1 stimulation induced intracardiac CgA processing in low-molecular-weight fragments in young, Wistar Kyoto, and SHR rats. In young normotensive and adult hypertensive rats, CgA increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation and cGMP levels. Analysis of the perfusate from both Wistar rats and SHRs of untreated and treated (Iso) hearts revealed CgA absence. In conclusion, in normotensive and hypertensive rats, we evidenced the following: 1) full-lengthCgAdirectly affects myocardial and coronary function by AkT/nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide/cGMP/protein kinase G pathway; and 2) the heart generates intracardiac CgA fragments in response to hemodynamic and excitatory challenges. For the first time at the cardiovascular level, our data provide a conceptual link between systemic and intracardiac actions of full-length CgA and its fragments, expanding the knowledge on the sympathochromaffin/CgA axis under normal and physiopathological conditions. Source

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