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Teixeira T.F.S.,Federal University of Viçosa | Boroni Moreira A.P.,Federal University of Viçosa | Souza N.C.S.,National Institute of Cancer | Frias R.,University of Turku | Gouveia Peluzio M.C.,Federal University of Viçosa
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2014

Introduction: Disturbances of the gut barrier function have been related to a variety of diseases, including intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases. The intestinal permeability tests are considered useful tools for evaluating disease severity and to follow-up patients after a therapeutic intervention and indirectly assess barrier function. Objective: The aims of this review were to highlight the possible factors underlying higher intestinal permeability and the clinical conditions that have been associated with this in different age range; and also provide some insight into methodological aspects. Results and discussion: Abnormal regulation of tight junction function is the main cause of altered intestinal barrier. The impaired barrier function results in higher permeation rates of administered probes through the intestinal mucosa. Lactulose and mannitol are one of the most commonly used probes. The innocuousness and easiness of intestinal permeability tests can be explored to expand the knowledge about the clinical situations in which intestinal barrier dysfunction can be an important feature. Many factors may influence the results of the test. Researchers and healthcare professionals should try to circumvent the possible pitfalls of the intestinal permeability tests to produce consistent evidences. The use of others markers of intestinal physiology may also contribute to understand the role of barrier function in different diseases.


Barrera L.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases Ismael Cosi o Villegas | Barrera L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Montes-Servi n E.,National Institute of Respiratory Diseases Ismael Cosi o Villegas | Barrera A.,Mexicos Autonomous Technological Institute | And 7 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2015

We aim to associate a cytokine profile obtained through data mining with the clinical characteristics of patients with subgroups with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our results provide evidence that complex cytokine networks may be used to identify patient sub-groups with different prognoses in advanced NSCLC that could serve as potential biomarkers for best treatment choices. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


News Article | September 19, 2016
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

Hepatitis researchers have long thought that immune cells – sent to attack virus-infected cells in the liver – cause the acute liver injury associated with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and other hepatitis viruses. Yet, investigators at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine discovered that it is an immediate, intrinsic response of the HAV-infected cell that results in liver inflammation. These results were published today in the journal Science. “The virus evokes a response in the infected cell that activates a pre-programmed cell death pathway,” said Stanley Lemon, MD, one of the study’s authors, professor of medicine, and member of the UNC Institute for Global Health & Infectious Diseases. “In effect, the cell commits suicide, sacrificing itself along with the virus in an effort to save the host. This results in inflammation within the liver that we recognize as hepatitis.” Hepatitis A virus is a vaccine-preventable form of infectious hepatitis found worldwide. It is transmitted through ingestion of food and water that is contaminated with the feces of an infected person. Frozen strawberries used in drinks at a smoothie chain led to a hepatitis A outbreak this summer in seven states. Symptoms of hepatitis A include nausea, stomach pain, fever, sore throat, headache and diarrhea. People infected with HAV may not experience any symptoms, but shed the virus for two to four weeks. During this period, an infected person can pass the virus to others. HAV does not cause chronic liver disease like hepatitis B and C viruses. But in rare cases, it can cause acute liver failure, which is often fatal. In addition to identifying how the virus causes acute liver injury, the UNC team, along with colleagues at North Carolina State University, established a new animal model of infection with the virus. For decades, researchers believed only primates – humans, chimpanzees and a few species of monkeys – could be infected by HAV. However, when the team interrupted the intrinsic cellular antiviral response in mice, they discovered the virus could jump species. “The ability of the virus to jump into mice is dependent upon knocking out the mouse interferon system, which HAV cannot do on its own,” said Lemon. “Host species jumps are incredibly important for viral emergence, and the factors that control the odds of this happening are not well known. We have defined the host interferon system as a very important barrier to a host species jump.” The UNC research team, led by Lemon and Jason Whitmire, Ph.D., associate professor in the department of genetics, is now poised to investigate the complicated interplay of nonspecific “innate” and specific “adaptive” immune responses that ultimately control the infection and eliminate HAV from the host, processes that are not well understood for any of the five human hepatitis viruses. Funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and a National Institute of Cancer Center Core Support Grant supported this research.


Barreto S.M.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Casado L.G.,National Institute of Cancer | de Moura L.,Brazilian Ministry of Health | Crespo C.,National Institute of Geography and Statistics | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health | Year: 2012

Background: Very few studies have examined the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking in middle-income countries. Methods: This work describes smoking exposure among 59 992 high school students who took part in the Brazilian Survey of School Health and investigates contextual factors associated with regular smoking, defined as smoking cigarettes at least once in the past 30 days. The explaining variables were grouped into: socio-demographic characteristics, school context, household context and family rapport. Variables independently associated with smoking in each context were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 53% of the total sample were girls, 89% were aged 13-15 years. 24% had already experimented with cigarettes, 50% before the age of 12 years. The prevalence of regular smoking was 6.3% (95% CI 5.87 to 6.74), with no sex variation. Smoking was not associated with either the mother's education or the index of household assets. In the multivariable analysis, studying at a private school, the possibility of purchasing cigarettes at school and skipping of classes without parents' consent increased the chances of smoking. In the household context, living with both parents was negatively associated with smoking, while having smoking parents and exposure to other people's smoking was positively related to smoking. In the family context, parental unawareness of what the adolescent was doing increased smoking, but having meals with the mother one or more days per week and parents' negative reactions to adolescent smoking reduced the chances of smoking. Conclusion: The results reinforce the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking behaviours and will help improve public health policies aimed at preventing smoking and health promotion in adolescents.


Prado-Calleros H.M.,General Hospital Dr Manuel Gea Gonzalez | Jimenez-Fuentes E.,National Institute of Cancer | Jimenez-Escobar I.,General Hospital Dr Manuel Gea Gonzalez
Head and Neck | Year: 2016

Background Descending necrotizing mediastinitis is a serious infection involving the neck and the chest, in which an odontogenic, pharyngeal, or cervical infection spreads rapidly to the thoracic cavity, with a high death rate by sepsis and organic failure if not treated quickly and properly. Methods A systematic search in the electronic database PubMed was conducted using the keywords "mediastinitis" and "descending necrotizing mediastinitis" resulting in 2560 items, filters were activated (systematic review, meta-analysis, and clinical trial) resulting in 60 articles, from which we selected relevant articles on the topic. Results The best available evidence we could obtain was from 26 case series with evidence level III. The overall mortality in this period was 17.5%. Conclusion For mediastinitis limited to the upper part of the mediastinum, transcervical drainage may be sufficient; cases that extended below the tracheal carina may require cervical and transthoracic drainage. A multidisciplinary therapeutic approach has allowed a reduction in its mortality. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..


Victorino V.J.,State University Londrina | Campos F.C.,State University Londrina | Herrera A.C.S.A.,State University Londrina | Colado Simao A.N.,State University Londrina | And 4 more authors.
Tumor Biology | Year: 2014

About 20 % of breast cancer patients over-express the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), which is associated with enhanced tumor malignancy. The influence of HER2 overexpression on oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans remains unknown; therefore, we investigated the oxidative profile in women according to their HER2 status. Fifty-two controls and 52 breast cancer (BC) patients were enrolled. The BC patients were subdivided into HER-, negative for HER2 overexpression, and HER+, positive for HER2 overexpression. Oxidative stress profilling was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA), free 8-isoprostane F2, protein carbonyl content, nitric oxide (NO), total radical antioxidant parameter (TRAP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activity, and glutathione (GSH) levels. Total thiol content and lipoperoxidation were evaluated in HCC1954 and MCF-7. Cells overexpressing HER2 presented enhanced oxidative stress. Increased erythrocyte lipoperoxidation was found in BC patients, while plasma lipoperoxidation was detected in both the BC and HER- groups. Decreased MDA levels were found in the HER+ group, suggesting that HER2 overexpression may protects against plasma lipoperoxidation. No alteration was found for 8-isoprostane F2, NO, and carbonyl content. TRAP was decreased in BC patients, while HER2 overexpression increased SOD and prevented decreased GSH levels. These data help to understand the HER2 overexpression in oxidative signaling and may enable the development of new strategies for anti-HER2 therapy. © 2013 International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM).


Chimelli L.,National Institute of Cancer
Revue Neurologique | Year: 2012

Tropical infections refer to a group of diseases usually located in regions with a warm climate, particularly affecting developing countries, partly because of the conditions that allow them to thrive. However, due to the increased international travel, infectious agents that were previously limited to tropical regions pose an increasing threat to populations at risk for opportunistic infection (OI), especially those infected with the HIV. Tropical infections can facilitate HIV transmission and accelerate the progression of asymptomatic HIV infection to AIDS. Some have the potential to alter the epidemiology, natural history, and/or response to treatment of the other. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has provided a huge benefit for the vast majority of patients infected with the HIV, by allowing the immune system to recover, improving the clinical and radiological results and reducing the number of OI. On the other hand, some patients have developed various disorders of immune reconstitution, resulting in either hyper-immune inflammatory response to an exogenous antigen or autoimmunity. A significant proportion of these cases have been reported in immigrants from tropical countries to high-income countries, therefore awareness of these phenomena is needed since clinical presentations are often atypical and pose diagnostic challenges. This article reviews some of the key diagnostic aspects of tropical infections associated with HIV infection. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Veremieva M.,NASU Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics | Khoruzhenko A.,NASU Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics | Zaicev S.,National Institute of Cancer | Negrutskii B.,NASU Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics | El'skaya A.,NASU Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics
European Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2011

Background The signalling role of individual subunits released from some stable translation multi-molecular complexes under unfavourable circumstances is known. The disease-related role of the translation elongation factor 1 complex (eEF1) as a whole is never researched; however, its subunits possess apparent regulatory potency. Whether the individual eEF1 subunits can exist and function in cell beyond the complex is not known. Materials and methods The protein and mRNA levels of the A1, Bα, Bβ or Bγ subunits of eEF1 were analysed by Western and Northern blot techniques in the same specimens of cardioesophageal carcinoma and correspondingly paired normal tissues. Cancer-induced changes in localization patterns of the eEF1 subunits were examined immunohistochemically. Results Changes in different eEF1 subunits expression were found to be unbalanced, indicating cancer-related emergence of individual components of the eEF1 complex. Independent overexpression of at least one eEF1 component was observed in 72% clinical samples. Noncomplexed eEF1B subunits were also detected by immunohistochemical analysis. In the normal tissue, localization of the Bα, Bβ and Bγ subunits was nuclear-cytoplasmic while in the cancer tissue the only Bγ subunit stayed in nucleus. Conclusions Our data are first to indicate that the individual subunits can exist separately from the eEF1B complex in cancer tissues and that disintegration of eEF1B could be an important sign of cancer development. Nuclear localization of Bγ both in normal and in cancer tissues suggests its previously unknown nucleus-specific role in human cells. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2010 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.


Alves G.,National Institute of Cancer
International braz j urol : official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology | Year: 2013

To screen proteins/peptides in urine of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) patients by SELDI-TOF (Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization - Time of Flight) in search of possible biomarkers. Sixty-one urines samples from Clear Cell RCC and Papillary RCC were compared to 29 samples of control urine on CM10 chip. Mass analysis was performed in a ProteinChip Reader PCS 4,000 (Ciphergen Biosystems, Fremont, CA) with the software Ciphergen Express 3.0. All chips were read at low and at high laser energy. For statistical analysis the urine samples were clustered according to the histological classification (Clear Cell and Papillary Carcinoma). For identification urine was loaded on a SDS PAGE gel and bands of most interest were excised, trypsinized and identified by MS/MS. Databank searches were performed in Swiss-Prot database using the MASCOT search algorithm and in Profound. Proteins that were identified from urine of controls included immunoglobulin light chains, albumin, secreted and transmembrane 1 precursor (protein K12), mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) and vitelline membrane outer layer 1 isoform 1. Identification of immunoglobulins and isoforms of albumin are quite common by proteomics and therefore cannot be considered as possible molecular markers. K12 and MASP-2 play important physiological roles, while vitellite membrane outer layer 1 role is unknown since it was never purified in humans. The down expression of Protein K-12 and MASP-2 make them good candidates for RCC urine marker and should be validated in a bigger cohort including the other less common histological RCC subtypes.


Parra-Medina R.,National Institute of Cancer
American Journal of Dermatopathology | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT:: Sarcomatoid eccrine porocarcinoma (SEP) is a very rare malignancy including epithelial and mesenchymal components exhibiting pleomorphic cells, nuclear hyperchromasia, and high mitotic activity in both elements. To date, only 6 cases of this uncommon neoplasm have been reported, corresponding to women over 70 years of age with ulcerated skin lesions. The authors describe the first sarcomatoid eccrine porocarcinoma in a 75-year-old male patient with a right hallux lesion, presenting a collision tumor with a mixed population of epithelial cells and a spindle cell angiosarcomatous mesenchymal component each expressing distinct and nonoverlapping morphologic and immunohistochemical features of epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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