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Choudhary V.K.,Arunachal Pradesh Center | Choudhary V.K.,National Institute of Biotic Stress Management | Choudhury B.U.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Bhagawati R.,Arunachal Pradesh Center
Paddy and Water Environment | Year: 2016

In the uplands of Eastern Himalayan Region (EHR) of India, dry-seeded rain-fed rice occupies considerable area. However, productivity of rice in this region is very low and is mainly due to frequent occurrence of intermittent soil moisture stress, weed infestation, and poor crop establishment. Keeping this in view, a field experiment on rain-fed direct-seeded rice was conducted during two consecutive years 2011 and 2012 at the EHR of India (27° 95′N latitude and 94° 76′E longitude, 662 m above MSL) to evaluate the effect of seed priming (SP) with different durations (0, 12, 18, and 24 h) and in situ furrows at various row intervals as moisture conservation measures (MCM) on seed germination, plant stand, profile moisture recharge, rice productivity, water and energy use efficiency, and harvest monetary benefits. Results revealed that SP for 24 h duration significantly (p < 0.05) improved the seed germination and crop stand, rice grain yield by 30–36 %, water use efficiency by 29–36 %, and energy productivity by 15–22 %. In situ furrows at regular and alternate row intervals also registered 1.89–3.2-fold increase in profile moisture recharge, 20–34 % higher rice productivity, 23–33 % improvement in water use efficiency, and 6–16 % increase in energy productivity over without MCM. Seed priming helped in improving seed germination, seedling establishment, and plant stand, while MCM was useful in mid-season rainfall capture and profile moisture recharge during intermittent moisture stress for better plant growth. However, adoption of in situ furrows (regular and alternate row intervals) as MCM increased the cost of cultivation by 13–27 % over normal practices but was compensated by the significant increase in grain yield, water use efficiency, benefit:cost ratios, and farmers’ profit. © 2016 The International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering and Springer Japan

PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bharathiar University, P.A. College, National Institute of Biotic Stress Management and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2015

In the present study, Salmonella isolates (n=40) recovered from clinical, food, poultry and environmental sources were characterized for serotype identification, genetic diversity and biofilm formation capability. Serotype identification using multiplex PCR assay revealed six isolates to be Salmonella Typhimurium, 14 as Salmonella Enteritidis, 11 as Salmonella Typhi, and the remaining nine isolates unidentified were considered as other Salmonella spp. Most of the Salmonella isolates (85%) produced biofilm on polystyrene surfaces as assessed by microtitre plate assay. About 67.5% isolates were weak biofilm producers and 17.5% were moderate biofilm producers. There was no significant difference in biofilm-forming ability among the Salmonella isolates recovered from different geographical regions or different sources. Among the genetic methods, Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC) PCR revealed greater discriminatory power (DI, 0.943) followed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) (DI, 0.899) and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR (DI, 0.873). However, composite analysis revealed the highest discrimination index (0.957). Greater discrimination of S. Typhimurium and S. Typhi was achieved using PFGE, while ERIC PCR was better for S. Enteritidis and other Salmonella serotypes. A strong positive correlation (r=0.992) was observed between biofilm formation trait and clustered Salmonella isolates in composite genetic analysis.

CHOUDHARY V.K.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | CHOUDHARY V.K.,National Institute of Biotic Stress Management | CHOUDHURY B.U.,Research Complex for North Eastern Hilly Region
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2016

The effects of sole and intercropping of rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) were evaluated with soybean (Glycine max L.) and groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) on crop yield, weed smothering efficiency (WSE) and nutrient (NPK) balance at Eastern Himalayan Region (EHR), India. Grain yield of maize was highest (3886 to 4110 kg ha−1) in the solitary system followed by maize-soybean intercrops at 1:2 rows. However, system productivity as well as production efficiency was higher by 47.3-63.3% and 39.5-58.4%, respectively in intercropping with groundnut at 1:5 rows compared to solitary maize. WSE was relatively higher to solitary soybean and was comparable to maize-groundnut intercropping at 1:5 row proportions. Similarly, NPK uptake was higher in intercropping of maize-soybean systems at 1:5 row proportions. Inclusion of legumes as intercrops in predominantly solitary rainfed maize may improve the system productivity while sustaining the nutrient availability in the vast uplands of the EHR and other similar rainfed hilly ecosystems. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016

Choudhary V.K.,National Institute of Biotic Stress Management | Choudhary V.K.,ICAR Research Complex for North eastern Hills Region | Kumar P.S.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management | Kumar P.S.,ICAR Research Complex for North eastern Hills Region
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2014

An experiment was conducted at Basar, during 2008–11 on maize (Zea mays L.)–based cropping systems, to evaluate the production, root growth and weed dynamics with and without mulch. The productivity of sequential crops was 18–35% higher with mulch application than no mulch. However, the highest maize yield (4.25 t/ha) was obtained with maize–groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cropping system, followed by maize–pea (Pisum sativum L.; 4.24 t/ha). Similarly, yield of sequence crop was the highest with Frenchbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.; 4.91 t/ha). Maize–equivalent yield and production efficiency were the highest with maize–Frenchbean system (10.1 t/ha and 42.4 kg/ha/day respectively). Land-use efficiency was found maximum with maize–Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czernj. & Cosson] system (71.9%) followed by maize–groundnut system. Root length, dry weight, volume number and density were recorded higher with groundnut (50.2 cm, 6.9 g/plant, 43.3 cc, 20.8 and 160.5 mg/ cc respectively) followed by Indian mustard and lowest with Frenchbean. However, specific root length was highest with pea (12.0 cc/g). Density, dry weight, index and persistency of weed were the highest with maize–fallow, followed by maize–Frenchbean system. However, weed-smothering efficiency was the maximum with maize–groundnut (59.4%), followed by maize–Indian mustard system (58.6%). Mulched plot registered the least said weed parameters with 65% weed-smothering efficiency. Soil-moisture content 30, 60 and 90 days after sowing (DAS) was higher with maize–groundnut system, followed by maize–Indian mustard system, and between the mulch, no mulched plot had considerably lower soil moisture than the mulched ones. © 2014, Indian Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved.

Choudhary V.K.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Choudhary V.K.,National Institute of Biotic Stress Management | Kumar P.S.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Kumar P.S.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

In eastern Himalayan region, growers cultivate many crops per unit area without following definite row proportions which resulted in lower productivity. Use of recent modern technologies in undulated topography is not feasible. Therefore, locally available resources were utilized for better water use, higher productivity and improved energy profitability in the maize–legume intercropping system. The studies were conducted at ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Basar, Arunachal Pradesh during the years 2010 and 2011. Maize, soybean and groundnut were planted solitary, and soybean and groundnut were intercropped with maize at 1:1, 1:2 and 1:5 row proportions. The maize grain yield was highest with solitary maize, but, intercrop yield was improved with higher row proportions. Maize equivalent yield and per day productivity were highest with 1:5 of maize–groundnut. Higher row proportion of legumes improved the water use but it was highest with solitary soybean (911.1 mm). The improvement of water use efficiency by 83.2 %, harvest monetary benefit by 87.5 %, benefit cost ratio by 92.3 % and energy productivity by 38.5 % with 1:5 of maize–groundnut over solitary maize. The energy input and output efficiency was higher with 1:2 of maize–groundnut, but output and net energy were superior under 1:2 of maize–soybean. The soil moisture content and solar radiation interception were 24.1 and 37.8 % which were improved with solitary soybean over solitary maize. Intercropping practices tender numerous advantages but improved understanding of the ecological mechanisms associated with intended row arrangement, including additional advantage of crop yield and water use, are needed to augment the benefit. © 2015, The National Academy of Sciences, India.

Choudhary V.K.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Choudhary V.K.,National Institute of Biotic Stress Management | Kumar P.S.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Kumar P.S.,National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2015

Acidic soils are limiting the production potential of the crops because of low availability of basic ions and excess of hydrogen (H+), aluminium (Al3+), and manganese (Mn2+) in exchangeable forms. Therefore, a field study was conducted to know the ameliorating effect of organic manures on acidic soils and production performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., Walp.) by using different locally available organic manures. Growth and yield attributes were observed to be significantly greater with vermicompost (VC) followed by poultry manure (PM). Porosity, maximum water-holding capacity (MWHC), and organic carbon were greater with farmyard manure (FYM) and cow dung manure (CDM). However, water retention at field capacity (FC), permanent wilting point (PWP), bulk density (BD), pH, and availability of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) were greater with VC. However, physical and chemical properties were deteriorated in control plots. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Choudhary V.K.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Choudhary V.K.,National Institute of Biotic Stress Management
Paddy and Water Environment | Year: 2015

Intermittent and prolonged dry spell during growth of transplanted rice is an important abiotic problem in north eastern region (NER). However, the productivity of rice in the region is very low, and this is mainly associated with reduced plant population, growth, and yield attributes with lower relative water content and leaf rolling with formation of soil cracks by erratic and aberrant rainfall. Keeping this in view, a field experiment on transplanted rice was conducted during two consecutive years 2011 and 2012 at NER of India, to evaluate the imposition of forced surface drainage (SD) at various growth stages (continuous drainage, SD at tillering, SD at panicle initiation, SD at booting, SD at flowering, SD at milking, and 15 days intermittent SD) and was compared with continuous flooding on growth and yield attributes, yield, relative water content, leaf rolling, and formation of soil cracks. Results revealed that continuous flooding has significant (p < 0.05) improved the plant population, growth and yield parameters, rice grain yield (3,406.7 kg ha−1) and straw yield (4,683.3 kg ha−1), relative water content maintained >90 %, no leaf roll, and soil crack. However, imposition of SD at tillering has lower tillers hill−1, but yield was compensated by improvement in yield attributes. As per the availability of water, growers of the region can utilize the water for scheduling of water and most critical stages can be avoided by moisture stress to obtain higher productivity. © 2014, The International Society of Paddy and Water Environment Engineering and Springer Japan.

Choudhary V.K.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Dixit A.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Dixit A.,National Institute of Biotic Stress Management | Bhagawati R.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

Field experimentation on toria (Brassica campestris L.) was carried out with the major objective of utilizing the fallow land after rainy season by following suitable management practices in the region. Results revealed that under conventional tillage, roots were 39.1% longer and 36.8% heavier biomass, contrarily no tillage had 6% more soil organic carbon. The seed yield improved by 44.8% with minimum tillage over no tillage. Crop sown on 15 October obtained 16.9-47.6% additional seed yield over before and after sown crops, but line sowing evidenced 22.1% higher seed yield than the broadcasting. Planting geometry with 30×15 cm noticed 3.1-32.9% more seed yield. Nitrogen application at 75 kg/ha had 5.3-47% improvement of seed yield, whereas nitrogen use efficiency was highest with 50 kg/ha. Phosphorus application at 50 kg/ha added 61.5% more yield, whereas phosphorus-use efficiency was highest at 25 kg/ha. Twice irrigation at 30 and 60 days after sowing (DAS) noticed 40.5% extra seed yield, contrary water-use efficiency was highest with single irrigation at 30 DAS over no irrigation. Hand weeding twice at 25 and 50 DAS supplemented the seed yield by 52.6% with 55.7% weed control efficiency over no weeding. Adoption of better package of practices in newer area under existing cropping system will play a key role in future yield improvement. Therefore, as per the resource availability feasible technologies may harness higher seed yield of toria in eastern Himalayas.

PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute, National Institute of Biotic Stress Management and Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of antimicrobial agents | Year: 2016

The in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus were evaluated individually and synergistically against multidrug-resistant enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (MDR-EAEC). In vitro evaluation of each probiotic strain when co-cultured with MDR-EAEC isolates revealed a reduction in MDR-EAEC counts (eosin-methylene blue agar) in a dose- and time-dependent manner: probiotics at a dose rate of 10(10)CFU inhibited MDR-EAEC isolates at 72h post-inoculation (PI), whereas at lower concentrations (10(8) and 10(9)CFU) MDR-EAEC isolates were inhibited at 96h PI. The synergistic antimicrobial effect of both probiotic strains (each at 10(10)CFU) was highly significant (P<0.01) and inhibited the growth of MDR-EAEC isolates at 24h PI. For in vivo evaluation, weaned mice were fed orally with 10(7)CFU of MDR-EAEC. At Day 3 post-infection, treated mice were fed orally with the probiotic strains (each at 10(10)CFU). Compared with the control, post-treatment a significant (P<0.01) reduction in MDR-EAEC counts was observed in faeces by Day 2 and in intestinal tissues of treated mice by Days 3 and 4 as evidenced by plate count (mean 2.71 log and 2.27 log, respectively) and real-time PCR (mean 1.62 log and 1.57 log, respectively) methods. Histopathologically, comparatively mild changes were observed in the ileum and colon from Days 3 to 5 post-treatment with probiotics; however, from Day 6 the changes were regenerative or normal. These observations suggest that these probiotic strains can serve as alternative therapeutics against MDR-EAEC-associated infections in humans and animals.

PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Nagpur Veterinary College, National Institute of Biotic Stress Management and Justus Liebig University
Type: | Journal: Journal of microbiological methods | Year: 2016

A novel multiplex PCR assay was developed to identify genus Listeria, and discriminate Listeria monocytogenes and its major lineages (LI, LII, LIII). This assay is a rapid and inexpensive subtyping method for screening and characterization of L. monocytogenes.

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