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Narang A.,Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology | Jha P.,Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology | Rawat V.,Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology | Mukhopadhayay A.,Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2011

Identification and study of genetic variation in recently admixed populations not only provides insight into historical population events but also is a powerful approach for mapping disease loci. We studied a population (OG-W-IP) that is of African-Indian origin and has resided in the western part of India for 500 years; members of this population are believed to be descendants of the Bantu-speaking population of Africa. We have carried out this study by using a set of 18,534 autosomal markers common between Indian, CEPH-HGDP, and HapMap populations. Principal-components analysis clearly revealed that the African-Indian population derives its ancestry from Bantu-speaking west-African as well as Indo-European-speaking north and northwest Indian population(s). STRUCTURE and ADMIXTURE analyses show that, overall, the OG-W-IPs derive 58.7% of their genomic ancestry from their African past and have very little inter-individual ancestry variation (8.4%). The extent of linkage disequilibrium also reveals that the admixture event has been recent. Functional annotation of genes encompassing the ancestry-informative markers that are closer in allele frequency to the Indian ancestral population revealed significant enrichment of biological processes, such as ion-channel activity, and cadherins. We briefly examine the implications of determining the genetic diversity of this population, which could provide opportunities for studies involving admixture mapping. © 2011 by The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

Majumder P.P.,National Institute of Biomedical Genomics
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

Considerable variation in antibody response (AR) was observed among recipients of an injectable typhoid vaccine and an oral cholera vaccine. We sought to find whether polymorphisms in genes of the immune system, both innate and adaptive, were associated with the observed variation in response. For both vaccines, we were able to discover and validate several polymorphisms that were significantly associated with immune response. For the typhoid vaccines, these polymorphisms were on genes that belonged to pathways of polysaccharide recognition, signal transduction, inhibition of T-cell proliferation, pro-inflammatory signalling and eventual production of antimicrobial peptides. For the cholera vaccine, the pathways included epithelial barrier integrity, intestinal homeostasis and leucocyte recruitment. Even though traditional wisdom indicates that both vaccines should act as T-cell-independent antigens, our findings reveal that the vaccines induce AR using different pathways. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Chinnaswamy S.,National Institute of Biomedical Genomics
Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research | Year: 2014

Human genetic variation plays a critical role in both spontaneous clearance of and response to interferon (IFN)-based therapies against hepatitis C virus (HCV) as shown by the success of recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Several GWAS and later validation studies have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the IFNL3 (formerly IL28B) locus on chromosome 19 are involved in eliminating HCV in human patients. No doubt that this information is helping clinicians worldwide in making better clinical decisions in anti-HCV therapy, but the biological mechanisms involving the SNPs leading to differential responses to therapy and spontaneous clearance of HCV remain elusive. Recent reports including the discovery of a novel IFN (IFN-λ4) gene at the IFNL3 locus and in vitro functional studies implicating 2 SNPs as causal variants lead to novel conclusions and perhaps to new directions in research. An attempt is made in this review to summarize the major findings of the GWAS, the efforts involved in the discovery of causal SNPs; and to explain the biological basis for spontaneous clearance and response to treatment in HCV infections. © 2014 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Dweep H.,University of Heidelberg | Sticht C.,University of Heidelberg | Kharkar A.,University of Heidelberg | Pandey P.,National Institute of Biomedical Genomics | Gretz N.,University of Heidelberg
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Autosomal polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a frequent monogenic renal disease, characterised by fluid-filled cysts that are thought to result from multiple deregulated pathways such as cell proliferation and apoptosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of many genes associated with such biological processes and human pathologies. To explore the possible regulatory role of miRNAs in PKD, the PKD/Mhm (cy/+) rat, served as a model to study human ADPKD. A parallel microarray-based approach was conducted to profile the expression changes of mRNAs and miRNAs in PKD/Mhm rats. 1,573 up- and 1,760 down-regulated genes were differentially expressed in PKD/Mhm. These genes are associated with 17 pathways (such as focal adhesion, cell cycle, ECM-receptor interaction, DNA replication and metabolic pathways) and 47 (e.g., cell proliferation, Wnt and Tgfβ signaling) Gene Ontologies. Furthermore, we found the similar expression patterns of deregulated genes between PKD/Mhm (cy/+) rat and human ADPKD, PKD1L3/L3, PKD1-/-, Hnf1α-deficient, and Glis2lacZ/lacZ models. Additionally, several differentially regulated genes were noted to be target hubs for miRNAs. We also obtained 8 significantly up-regulated miRNAs (rno-miR-199a-5p, -214, -146b, -21, -34a, -132, -31 and -503) in diseased kidneys of PKD/Mhm rats. Additionally, the binding site overrepresentation and pathway enrichment analyses were accomplished on the putative targets of these 8 miRNAs. 7 out of these 8 miRNAs and their possible interactions have not been previously described in ADPKD. We have shown a strong overlap of functional patterns (pathways) between deregulated miRNAs and mRNAs in the PKD/Mhm (cy/+) rat model. Our findings suggest that several miRNAs may be associated in regulating pathways in ADPKD. We further describe novel miRNAs and their possible targets in ADPKD, which will open new avenues to understand the pathogenesis of human ADPKD. Furthermore they could serve as a useful resource for anti-fibrotic therapeutics. © 2013 Dweep et al.

Srivastava P.K.,Indian Institute of Science | Srivastava P.K.,Imperial College London | Moturu T.R.,Indian Institute of Science | Pandey P.,National Institute of Biomedical Genomics | And 2 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2014

Background: Deep-sequencing has enabled the identification of large numbers of miRNAs and siRNAs, making the high-throughput target identification a main limiting factor in defining their function. In plants, several tools have been developed to predict targets, majority of them being trained on Arabidopsis datasets. An extensive and systematic evaluation has not been made for their suitability for predicting targets in species other than Arabidopsis. Nor, these have not been evaluated for their suitability for high-throughput target prediction at genome level. Results: We evaluated the performance of 11 computational tools in identifying genome-wide targets in Arabidopsis and other plants with procedures that optimized score-cutoffs for estimating targets. Targetfinder was most efficient [89% 'precision' (accuracy of prediction), 97% 'recall' (sensitivity)] in predicting 'true-positive' targets in Arabidopsis miRNA-mRNA interactions. In contrast, only 46% of true positive interactions from non-Arabidopsis species were detected, indicating low 'recall' values. Score optimizations increased the 'recall' to only 70% (corresponding 'precision': 65%) for datasets of true miRNA-mRNA interactions in species other than Arabidopsis. Combining the results of Targetfinder and psRNATarget delivers high true positive coverage, whereas the intersection of psRNATarget and Tapirhybrid outputs deliver highly 'precise' predictions. The large number of 'false negative' predictions delivered from non-Arabidopsis datasets by all the available tools indicate the diversity in miRNAs-mRNA interaction features between Arabidopsis and other species. A subset of miRNA-mRNA interactions differed significantly for features in seed regions as well as the total number of matches/mismatches.Conclusion: Although, many plant miRNA target prediction tools may be optimized to predict targets with high specificity in Arabidopsis, such optimized thresholds may not be suitable for many targets in non-Arabidopsis species. More importantly, non-conventional features of miRNA-mRNA interaction may exist in plants indicating alternate mode of miRNA target recognition. Incorporation of these divergent features would enable next-generation of algorithms to better identify target interactions. © 2014 Srivastava et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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