Time filter

Source Type

Tuan P.A.,Chungnam National University | Park W.T.,Chungnam National University | Xu H.,Chungnam National University | Park N.I.,National Institute of Biological Resources NIBR | Park S.U.,Chungnam National University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Korean mint (Agastache rugosa), a perennial, medicinal plant of the Labiatae family, has many useful constituents, including monoterpenes and phenylpropanoids. Among these, tilianin and rosmarinic acid, 2 well-known natural products, have many pharmacologically useful properties. Chalcone synthase (CHS) and chalcone isomerase (CHI) catalyze the first and second committed steps in the phenylpropanoid pathway of plants, leading to the production of tilianin. In this study, cDNAs encoding CHS (ArCHS) and CHI (ArCHI) were isolated from A. rugosa using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. Amino acid sequence alignments showed that ArCHS and ArCHI shared high sequence identity and active sites with their respective orthologous genes. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to determine the expression levels of genes involved in tilianin and rosmarinic acid biosyntheses in the flowers, leaves, stems, and roots of A. rugosa. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed that the accumulation pattern of tilianin matched the expression patterns of ArCHS and ArCHI in different organs of A. rugosa. Moreover, acacetin, the precursor of tilianin, also demonstrated an accumulation pattern congruent with the expression of these 2 genes. The transcription levels of ArPAL, ArC4H, and Ar4CL were the highest in the leaves or flowers of the plant, which also contained a relatively high amount of rosmarinic acid. However, the roots showed a significant content of rosmarinic acid, although the transcription of ArPAL, ArC4H, and Ar4CL were low. The findings of our study support the medicinal usefulness of A. rugosa and indicate targets for increasing tilianin and rosmarinic acid production in this plant. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Park W.T.,Chungnam National University | Kim J.K.,National Academy of Agricultural Science NAAS | Park S.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Lee S.-W.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

We profiled and quantified glucosinolates, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and other secondary metabolites in the skin and flesh of pale green and purple kohlrabis. Analysis of these distinct kohlrabis revealed the presence of 8 glucosinolates, 12 anthocyanins, 2 carotenoids, and 7 phenylpropanoids. Glucosinolate contents varied among the different parts and types of kohlrabi. Glucoerucin contents were 4-fold higher in the flesh of purple kohlrabi than those in the skin. Among the 12 anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-(feruloyl)(sinapoyl) diglucoside-5-glucoside levels were the highest. Carotenoid levels were much higher in the skins than the flesh of both types of kohlrabi. The levels of most phenylpropanoids were higher in purple kohlrabi than in pale green ones. trans-Cinnamic acid content was 12.7-fold higher in the flesh of purple kohlrabi than that in the pale green ones. Thus, the amounts of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and phenylpropanoids varied widely, and the variations in these compounds between the two types of kohlrabi were significant. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Park N.I.,National Institute of Biological Resources NIBR | Xu H.,Chungnam National University | Li X.,Chungnam National University | Kim Y.S.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Transgenic hairy root lines from Scutellaria baicalensis overexpressing phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) (SbPAL1, SbPAL2, and SbAPL3) were established using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation system. Stable genetic transformation with the SbPAL genes was confirmed by real-time PCR. These transgenic hairy root lines produced higher quantities flavones (i.e., baicalin, baicalein, and wogonin) than the control hairy root line. In particular, the wogonin content was increased by 4-11 times in the SbPAL1-, SbPAL2-, and SbPAL3-overexpressing hairy roots than the S. baicalensis wild-type roots. This research showed the importance of PAL in flavone biosynthesis and demonstrated the efficiency of metabolic engineering in S. baicalensis hairy roots. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | Gyeongsang National University and National Institute of Biological Resources NIBR
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Mastoparans from the venom of social wasps have attracted considerable attention as effective antibiotic candidates. In this study, mastoparan V1 (MP-V1) from Vespula vulgaris was first disclosed to have a peptide amino acid sequence distinct from typical mastoparans and its biochemical properties and antimicrobial effects were compared with those of typical mastoparans MP-L, -X(V) and -B. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy revealed that MP-V1 and -X(V) form more stable -helical conformations in lipid membrane-like environments than MP-L and -B. In parallel, these two also showed more effective antimicrobial activities against the pathogens than did MP-L and -B. Although MP-V1 had a less stable -helical conformation than MP-X(V), it showed stronger antimicrobial effects against Streptococcus mutans and Salmonella enterica than MP-X(V). In the meantime, analysis of hemolytic activity revealed a range of doses (~50 M) that exhibited little potent cytotoxicity on human erythrocytes. Finally, the atypical MP-V1 peptide amino acid sequence provided important clues to understanding its antimicrobial mechanism from a structural perspective. Therefore, it has been concluded that MP-V1 is a de novo type of mastoparan with superior antimicrobial activities against both pathogenic bacteria and fungi, which may be useful in developing multipurpose antimicrobial drugs against infectious diseases.

Park K.-C.,Kangwon National University | Park N.-I.,National Institute of Biological Resources NIBR | Lee S.-I.,Kangwon National University | Kim K.-S.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | And 2 more authors.
Genes and Genomics | Year: 2014

The Arabidopsis genome was mined for whole copies of CACTA and CACTA-like elements and a new active element, AtCAC24024, was isolated. Like the previously identified CAC1 element, the genes encoding transposase (TPase) in AtCAC24024 were expressed in a methylation-defective mutant background, inducing its transposition. The AtCAC24024 element is structurally different from CAC1 in that it has a TPase-24 domain instead of the TPase-23 domain that exists in the TNP-A open reading frame of CAC1. The transposition activity of AtCAC24024 was low compared to CAC1. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that elements with both domains were present in both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, and originated independently and proliferated separately during plant differentiation. In a joint analysis of transposon display and amplified fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction in various Arabidopsis ecotypes, the CAC1 element showed three transpositions that were followed by random loss during ecotype differentiation, leading to incremental increases in copy number in recent ecotypes. Copy numbers of AtCAC24024 increased explosively in the first differentiation period, followed by random loss during ecotype differentiation. Although transposition might not directly cause ecotype differentiation, the possibility of any direct or indirect involvement still exists in ecotype differentiation by insertion into or excision out of critically functioning genes. © 2013 The Genetics Society of Korea.

Eo S.H.,Kongju National University | Ko B.J.,Kongju National University | Lee B.-J.,Kongju National University | Seomun H.,National Institute of Biological Resources NIBR | And 4 more authors.
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology | Year: 2016

We describe the isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite loci from the leopard cat, Prionailurus bengalensis Kerr, 1792 (Family Felidae). Using Illumina HiSeq2500 sequencing technology, we sequenced the leopard cat genome and identified 1.5 million loci of simple sequence repeats with di- to deca-nucleotide motifs. We developed twelve polymorphic markers with tetra-nucleotide motif types after screening 35 loci for amplification and polymorphism. The observed and expected heterozygosities of the markers were 0.438 and 0.423, respectively. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, with a mean polymorphism information content of 0.383. Eleven loci were at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and no linkage disequilibrium was detected among any pairs of loci. We tested cross-species amplification of these markers across five other felids (Panthera tigris, P. pardus, P. onca, Acinonyx jubatus, and Felis catus). All loci were transferable to at least one other feline species and four amplified all five species. The microsatellite markers developed in this study will be valuable for estimating ecological parameters of populations and to establish conservation and management strategies for feline species. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Blakemore R.J.,Hanyang University | Lee S.,Hanyang University | Lee W.,Hanyang University | Seo H.-Y.,National Institute of Biological Resources NIBR
ZooKeys | Year: 2013

Two Korean endemic pheretimoid Amynthas Kinberg, 1867 species belonging in family Megascolecidae s. stricto are sketched, dissected and described. Amynthas daeari Blakemore sp. n. has spermathecae in 6/7/8 complying with an A. tokioensis spp-group, whilst Amynthas jinburi Blakemore sp. n. has spermathecal pores in 5 & 6 strictly complying with Sims & Easton's (1972) A. canaliculatus-group. A definitive COI gene barcode is provided for the holotype of A. daeari but the age since collection or preservation of the A. jinburi type in 2000 precluded its mtDNA extraction at this time.

Blakemore R.J.,National Institute of Biological Resources NIBR
ZooKeys | Year: 2013

Two new megadrile earthworms from the steppes, the first species wholly from Outer Mongolia, are ascribed to the partially parthenogenetic Eisenia nordenskioldi (Eisen, 1879) species-complex. Taxonomic justification of sympatric Eisenia nordenskioldi mongol and E. nordenskioldi onon ssp. n. are supported by mtDNA COI barcodes. The unreliability of molecular differentiation based on voucher names compared to definitive types is again demonstrated, as pertains to the ultimate Eisenia andrei Bouché, 1972 synonym of the E. fetida (Savigny, 1826) sibling species-complex composed of more than a dozen prior names. Similar species described from Northeast China [formerly Manchuria] and North Korea are briefly considered, albeit they are intermittently held in synonymy of cosmopolitan Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826) along with many other taxa including some exotic lumbricids initially found in India. Japanese and North American lumbricids are also mentioned. Distributions are discussed and an annotated checklist of all nine Siberian/sub-arctic E. nordenskioldi ssp. is appended. © Robert J. Blakemore.

Blakemore R.J.,National Institute of Biological Resources NIBR
Zoology in the Middle East | Year: 2012

Clarification of correct placement of species in genus Metaphire Sims & Easton, 1972 is required as differentiation from Amynthas Kinberg, 1867 hinges on condition of male pores in their respective type-species. Confusion is due in part to misconception of rules of ICZN and partly because of problems of parthenogenetic degradation of male organs. In summary, Amynthas is the default genus of pheretimoids with superficial or absent male pores, Metaphire species differs by having non-superficial male pores and in Pheretima Kinberg, 1867, which is not known in East Asia, taxa further acquire nephridia on spermathecal ducts. The type of Metaphire, M. javanica (Kinberg, 1867), was misidentified in Australia but M. californica (Kinberg, 1867), its possible synonym, is widespread and is now confirmed in Korea. This latter cosmopolitan is still often confused with Japanese Duplodicodrilus schmardae (Horst, 1883) that has eversible intromittent organs developed much more so than in Metaphire. Figures are provided. © Kasparek Verlag, Heidelberg.

Blakemore R.J.,National Institute of Biological Resources NIBR | Seo Park T.,National Institute of Biological Resources NIBR | Seo H.-Y.,National Institute of Biological Resources NIBR
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

Amynthas gageodo Blakemore, sp. nov. is described from small Gageo-do Island, offshore to the southwest of the Korean Peninsula in the Yellow Sea. It is an octothecal species (four pairs of spermathecae) comparable to Japanese Amynthas carnosus (Goto & Hatai, 1899) (synonyms: Korean kyamikia Kobayashi, 1934, monstrifera Kobayashi, 1936, sangyeoli Hong & James, 2001, youngtai Hong & James, 2001, kimhaeiensis Hong & James, 2001, sinsiensis Hong & James, 2001, baemsagolensis Hong & James, 2001, Taiwanese monsoonus James et al., 2005) and to Chinese A. pingi (Stephenson, 1925) (synonym: fornicata Gates, 1935). Species associations in its forest litter habitat on the remote island included terrestrial leeches, planarian flatworm predators and other worms. MtDNA COI barcodes indisputably identify types of A. gageodo as a new model for future Korean earthworm species characterizations. Copyright © 2012 Magnolia Press.

Loading National Institute of Biological Resources NIBR collaborators
Loading National Institute of Biological Resources NIBR collaborators