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Ahn K.-J.,Chungnam National University | Jeon M.-J.,National Institute of Biological Resources | Branham M.A.,University of Florida
Cladistics | Year: 2010

A phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Liparocephalini Fenyes is presented based on morphological and molecular characters. The data set comprised 50 adult morphological characters, partial COI (907 bp), COII (366 bp) and 12S rDNA (325-355 bp), and nearly complete sequences of 18S rDNA (1768-1902 bp) for 21 species. Eighteen species of liparocephaline beetles from all eight genera and three outgroups, are included. The sequences were analysed separately and simultaneously with morphological characters by direct optimization in the program POY4 and by partitioned Bayesian analysis for the combined data. The direct optimization (DO) tree for the combined data under equal weighting, which also shows a minimum incongruence length difference value, resulted in a monophyletic Liparocephalini with the following patterns of phylogenetic relationships (outgroup ((Baeostethus, Ianmoorea) (Paramblopusa ((Amblopusa, Halorhadinus) (Liparocephalus, Diaulota))))). A sensitivity analysis using 16 different parameter sets for the combined data shows the monophyly of the liparocephalines and all its genera under all parameter sets. Bayesian analysis resulted in topological differences in comparison with the DO tree under equal weighting only in the position of the genus Paramblopusa and clade (Amblopusa + Halorhadinus), which were reversed. Historical biogeography and the stepwise evolutionary colonization of intertidal habitat in the Liparocephalini are discussed. Based on the biogeographical analyses, we hypothesize that the ancestor of the Liparocephalini occurred along the Panthallassan Ocean, the direct antecedent of the Pacific Ocean, followed by repeated dispersals to the Nearctic from the Palearctic. We also hypothesize that ancestors of the Liparocephalini appear to have arisen in the littoral zone of beaches and then colonized rocky reef areas in the low tidal zone later through high- to mid-tide zones. © The Willi Hennig Society 2009. © The Willi Hennig Society 2009.

Moon K.H.,National Institute of Biological Resources
Journal of Japanese Botany | Year: 2011

As a result of taxonomic studies of the genus Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, Lecanorales) in Korea, four species are recognized; M. anteforata Aptroot, M. J. Lai & Sparrius, M. nipponica K. H. Moon, Kurok. & Kashiw., M. primaria Aptroot, M. J. Lai & Sparrius and M. terebrata (Hoffm.) A. Massal. Among them M. anteforata is a new addition to the present area. Menegazzia asahinae (Yasuda ex Asahina) R. Sant. is excluded from the lichen flora of Korea.

Jeon M.-J.,Chungnam National University | Song J.-H.,National Institute of Biological Resources | Ahn K.-J.,Chungnam National University
Zoologica Scripta | Year: 2012

A phylogenetic analysis of the marine littoral genus Cafius Stephens is presented based on molecular characters. The data set comprised partial mitochondrial COI (910bp), COII (369bp), 12S rDNA (351-354bp), 16S rDNA (505-509bp) and nearly complete sequences of 18S rDNA (1814-1830bp) for 37 species. Twenty-seven Cafius species, representing five of six subgenera, two Remus Holme species, three Phucobius Sharp species, monotypic Thinocafius Steel and four outgroups were included. The sequences were analysed simultaneously by parsimony analysis in Tree Analysis Using New Technology (TNT) with traditional manual alignment, direct optimization (DO) in the program POY4 under a variety of gap costs and partitioned Bayesian analysis for the combined data. The genus Cafius and nearly all of its subgenera were not supported as being monophyletic. Instead, all analyses (parsimony trees, DO tree under equal weighting and Bayesian tree) showed monophyly of Cafius+Phucobius + Remus+Thinocafius (clade Z) and all seven nested clades (A-G). However, the phylogenetic relationships among clades A-G differed among the analyses. The genus Phucobius was recovered as a monophyletic group within Cafius. The genus Remus was not monophyletic but formed a clade with C. rufescens Sharp and C. rufifrons Bierig within Cafius. The genus Thinocafius formed a clade with C. caviceps Broun, C. litoreus (Broun) and C. quadriimpressus (White) within Cafius. We propose new concepts for the genus Cafius and its related genera, and the seven nested clades. © 2012 The Authors. Zoologica Scripta © 2012 The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.

Bae K.H.,National Institute of Biological Resources
Turkish Journal of Biology | Year: 2015

Bupleurum latissimum Nakai is a critically important endangered plant belonging to the family Apiaceae. Seed germination was promoted by soaking in the dormancy breaker gibberellic acid (GA3) (50% germination as compared with 4% of the control). An optimal temperature for germination of seed previously soaked in GA3 solution was determined by incubation at various temperatures. Seed germination of 31.8% was observed at 25 °C. These results indicate that the seeds of B. latissimum are difficult to germinate, even when treated with GA3. The greatest callus induction (94.8%) was observed in root explants of seedlings grown on MS medium containing a specific concentration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (1.0 mg L–1) and N6-benzyladenine (BA) (3.0 mg L–1). Induction of somatic embryo was observed in 78.5% of the root segment cultured on MS medium containing 3.0 mg L–1 2,4-D alone. The highest shoot induction rate was obtained in MS medium containing 30 g L–1 sucrose (number of shoots, 6.8; average length of shoot, 8.8 cm). After acclimation in artificial soil (1:1:1 mixture of peat moss, perlite, and sand) and transfer to the greenhouse, 98% of plantlets survived over 2 months. This in vitro propagation protocol will be very useful for the conservation of this critically endangered plant. © TÜBİTAK.

Kim M.J.,Chonnam National University | Kang A.R.,Chonnam National University | Jeong H.C.,Insect Research Institute of Hampyeong | Kim K.-G.,National Institute of Biological Resources | Kim I.,Chonnam National University
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

Lepidoptera is one of the largest insect orders, but the phylogenetic relationships within this order, have yet to be adequately described. Among these unresolved relationships include those regarding the monophyly of the Macrolepidoptera and interfamilial relationships of the true butterflies superfamily Papilionoidea. We present two new mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) belonging to the butterfly family Lycaenidae to explore the phylogenetic relationships existing among lepidopteran superfamilies and true butterfly families from a mitogenome perspective, and to evaluate the characteristics of the lepidopteran mitogenomes. Our consensus phylogeny of the Lepidoptera largely supported the superfamilial relationships (((((Bombycoidea + Geometroidea) + Noctuoidea) + Pyraloidea) + Papilionoidea) + Tortricoidea), signifying a lack of support for a traditionally defined Macrolepidoptera. The familial relationships of the true butterflies concordantly recovered the previously proposed phylogenetic hypothesis (((Lycaenidae + Nymphalidae) + Pieridae) + Papilionidae). The test for the effect of optimization schemes (exclusion and inclusion of third codon position of PCGs and two rRNA genes, with and without partitions) on the resolution and relationships within the Lepidoptera have demonstrated that the majority of analyses did not substantially alter the relevant topology and node support, possibly as the result of relatively strong signal in mitogenomes for intraordinal relationships in Lepidoptera. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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