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News Article | May 9, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

BOSTON -- Researchers from Hebrew Senior Life's Institute for Aging Research have discovered that foot pain - particularly severe foot pain - correlates to a higher incidence of recurrent falls. This finding also extends to those diagnosed with planus foot posture (flat feet), indicating that both foot pain and foot posture may play a role in falls among older adults. Using data from the Framingham Foot study, researchers found that foot pain and foot posture were not associated with any one fall; however, in the case of multiple falls, foot pain and foot posture were often a factor. These findings were published today in the journal Gerontology. "We know that having more than one fall can be of concern. Many don't think of feet as the culprit. However, higher odds of recurrent falls were seen for those with foot pain, especially severe foot pain, as well as those with planus foot posture, indicating that both foot pain and foot posture may play a role in falls," said Marian Hannan, Co -Director of the Musculoskeletal Research Center at the Institute for Aging Research and Associate Professor of Public Health, Harvard School of Public Health. "This is important because falls are a serious problem for older adults. They are a leading cause of hospitalization and often lead to a loss of independence, a decrease in quality of life, and sometimes death. With this new knowledge we hope to find more solutions to lessen the risk of falls in older adults," said Lead author Arunima Awale, Research Associate at Hebrew Senior Life's Institute for Aging Research. More than 30 percent of individuals over the age of 65 fall at least once a year. This figure increases to over 40% for persons aged 75 years or older. As a result of this study, scientists are hopeful that by lessening the instance of foot pain in older adults they can significantly reduce hospitalizations and loss of independence for American seniors. This study was supported by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and National Institute of Aging (grant number AR047853); and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study N01-HC-25195). About the Institute for Aging Research Scientists at the Institute for Aging Research seek to transform the human experience of aging by conducting research that will ensure a life of health, dignity and productivity into advanced age. The Institute carries out rigorous studies that discover the mechanisms of age-related disease and disability; lead to the prevention, treatment and cure of disease; advance the standard of care for older people; and inform public decision-making. The Aging Brain Center within IFAR studies cognitive aging and conditions affecting brain health. Hebrew SeniorLife, an affiliate of Harvard Medical School, is a national senior services leader uniquely dedicated to rethinking, researching and redefining the possibilities of aging. Founded in Boston in 1903, the nonprofit, non-sectarian organization today provides communities and health care for seniors, research into aging, and education for geriatric care providers. For more information about Hebrew SeniorLife, visit http://www. , follow us on Twitter @H_SeniorLife, like us on Facebook or read our blog.


News Article | November 7, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Scientists at Duke Health and Zhejiang Chinese Medical University have developed a strategy to stop the uncontrollable itch caused by urushiol, the oily sap common to poison ivy, poison sumac, poison oak and even mango trees. The team found that by blocking an immune system protein in the skin with an antibody, they could halt the processes that tell the brain the skin is itchy. The research was done in mice and is described in the Nov. 7 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. They hope their model could lead to potential treatments for people who are allergic to poison ivy -- an estimated 80 percent of the population. For most people, contact with poisonous plants is painful but not life-threatening. Still, there are significant health care costs associated with more than 10 million people in the U.S. affected each year, said senior author Sven-Eric Jordt, Ph.D., associate professor of anesthesiology at Duke. "Poison ivy rash is the most common allergic reaction in the U.S., and studies have shown that higher levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are creating a proliferation of poison ivy throughout the U.S. -- even in places where it wasn't growing before," Jordt said. "When you consider doctor visits, the costs of the drugs that are prescribed and the lost time at work or at school, the societal costs are quite large." Some symptoms of the fiery, blistering rash can be alleviated with antihistamines and steroids. But in recent years, scientists have determined that the most severe itching doesn't go away with antihistamines, because it arises from a different source, Jordt said. Jordt and collaborators determined the itch is triggered by interleukin 33 (IL-33), a protein in the skin involved in immune response. All people have IL-33 in their skin, but the protein is elevated in people who have eczema and psoriasis, Jordt said. The protein is known for inducing inflammation, but these new experiments show the protein also acts directly on the nerve fibers in the skin, exciting them and telling the brain that the skin is severely itchy. The researchers used an antibody to block IL-33 and found that it not only reduced inflammation, but also cut down scratching in mice with poison ivy rashes. An antibody that counteracts human IL-33 is currently being evaluated in humans through a Phase 1 clinical trial to determine its safety and potential side effects. In an additional approach tested in the mouse experiments, the researchers also found they could also alleviate itch by blocking a receptor for IL-33, called ST2. "There could be translational significance here," Jordt said. "So our next step will be to look at human skin to see if we see the same activity and the same pathways. We will also look at anti-inflammatory drugs that are already approved to see if they have the potential to alleviate itch." In addition to Jordt, study authors include Boyi Liu; Yan Tai; Satyanarayana Achanta; Melanie M. Kaelberer; Ana I. Caceres; Xiaomei Shao; and Jianqiao Fang. The research was supported by the Duke Anesthesiology DREAM Innovation Grant (2015-DIG LIU), Zhejiang Chinese Medical University Start-Up Funding (722223A08301/ 001/004), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81603676) and three National Institutes of Health -- the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (UL1 TR001117), the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (R01 ES015056, U01 ES015674) and the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease (R21 AR070554). The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


Bulken-Hoover J.D.,National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease | Bulken-Hoover J.D.,U.S. Army | Jackson W.M.,National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease | Ji Y.,National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Peripheral nerve damage frequently accompanies musculoskeletal trauma and repair of these nerves could be enhanced by the targeted application of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), which are typically expressed by endogenous cells that support nerve regeneration. Injured muscle tissues express NTFs to promote reinnervation as the tissue regenerates, but the source of these factors from within the muscles is not fully understood. We have previously identified a population of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) in traumatized muscle tissue with properties that support tissue regeneration, and our hypothesis was that MPCs also secrete the NTFs that are associated with muscle tissue reinnervation. We determined that MPCs express genes associated with neurogenic function and measured the protein-level expression of specific NTFs with known functions to support nerve regeneration. We also demonstrated the effectiveness of a neurotrophic induction protocol to enhance the expression of the NTFs, which suggests that the expression of these factors may be modulated by the cellular environment. Finally, neurotrophic induction affected the expression of cell surface markers and proliferation rate of the MPCs. Our findings indicate that traumatized muscle-derived MPCs may be useful as a therapeutic cell type to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration following musculoskeletal injury. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

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