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McLennan S.R.,University of Queensland | McLennan S.R.,Khan Research Laboratories | Campbell J.M.,Brian Pastures Research Station | Pham C.H.,University of Queensland | And 4 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2017

Dose response curves to various supplements were established in two pen-feeding experiments (Exp1 and Exp2) with Bos indicus crossbred steers of two age groups (Young, 10-12 months; Old, 33-36 months) fed low-quality tropical grass hays ad libitum. Diets included supplements based on (Exp1) cottonseed meal (CSM; intake (as fed) 0-10 g/kg liveweight (W).day) and a barley mix (Bar; 0-20 g/kg W.day) and (Exp2) a molasses mix (MUP) and a Bar mix, both fed at 0-20 g/kg W.day. Urea was provided with the Bar mixes and urea/copra meal with the MUP mix. Growth rates of Young steers increased linearly with Bar and MUP supplements but asymptotically with CSM whereas those of Old steers increased asymptotically with all supplement types. With supplement intake expressed on a liveweight basis (g/kg W.day), responses were greater for both steer age groups with CSM compared with Bar (Young, P < 0.001; Old, P < 0.01) and Bar compared with MUP treatments (Young, P < 0.01; Old, P < 0.05). Furthermore, Old steers outperformed their Young counterparts with both CSM (P < 0.05) and Bar (P < 0.001) supplements fed in Exp1 and with Bar and MUP supplements (P < 0.01) fed in Exp2. When supplement intake was expressed in absolute terms (kg/day), growth responses were not different between age groups for different supplements except that Old steers had a higher daily W gain on Bar than their Young counterparts (P < 0.05). Intake of hay (W-corrected) was higher for Young compared with Old steers without supplement but was variably reduced for both steer groups with increasing supplement intake. The results of these experiments have implications for supplement formulation for steers at different stages of maturity grazing low-quality forages.


Kang H.K.,National Institute of Animal Science | Park S.B.,National Institute of Animal Science | Kim S.H.,National Institute of Animal Science | Kim C.H.,National Institute of Animal Science
Poultry science | Year: 2016

The effects of stocking density on the performance, egg quality, leukocyte concentration, blood biochemistry, corticosterone levels, bone mineral density, and noxious gas emission of laying hens were investigated. Eight hundred 34-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments, each of which was replicated 4 times. Four stocking densities, including 5, 6, 7, and 10 birds/m2, were compared. A commercial-type basal diet was formulated to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations for laying hens from the National Research Council. The diet was fed to the hens ad libitum for 8 wk. Results indicated that hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake were less for (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m2 stock density than other stock densities. Production rate of floor and broken eggs and eggshell strength were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m2 stock density than other stock densities. There were no significant differences in the level of leukocytes among densities. However, heterophils and the H/L ratio were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m2 than in stock density of 6 or 7 birds/m2 Serum corticosterone was greater (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m2 than stock density than other stock densities. Litter moisture and gas emission (CO2 and NH3) were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m2 than stock density than 6 and 7 birds/m2 stock density. Bone mineral content was not influenced by increasing stock density. However, bone mineral density was less (P < 0.05) for 10 m2 stock density than other stock densities. These results indicate that increasing the density beyond 5 birds/m2 elicits some negative effects on laying performance of Hy-Line brown laying hens. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.


Thien Thu C.T.,Hanoi University of Agriculture | Cuong P.H.,National Institute of Animal science | Hang L.T.,National Institute of Animal science | Chao N.V.,Hue University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2012

This survey was carried out to study animal manure management on livestock farms with biogas technology (biogas farms) and without (non-biogas farms) in the areas surrounding the Vietnamese cities Hanoi and Hue. The objective of the study was to assess the contribution of biogas production to a better environment as well as to recognize the problems with livestock manure management on small-scale farms. On all the farms included in the study more than one manure management technology was used, i.e. composting, separation of manure, biogas production and discharge of liquid manure to recipients such as public sewers or ponds. On biogas farms, most of the manure collected was used for bio-digestion. The farmers used the fermented manure (digestate) as a source of nutrients for crops, but on more than 50% of the interviewed biogas farms digestate was discharged to the environment. On non-biogas farms, manure was in the form of slurry or it was separated into a liquid and a dry-matter-rich solid fraction. The solid fraction from separation was used for composting and the liquid fraction usually discharged to the environment. The survey revealed that there is a need to improve methods for transporting the manure to the field, as transportation is the main barrier to recycling the liquid manure fraction. Farmers in developing countries need financial and technical support to install biogas digesters and to overcome the problems involved in utilizing the manure. Information about how to pre-treat manure before adding it to the digester is urgently needed. At present too much water is used, and the high volume of slurry reduces the retention time and is a disincentive for transporting and applying the digestate to fields. The users need to be informed about the risk of loss of methane to the environment, how to prevent cooker corrosion and the discharge to recipients. In addition, the study reveals that in developing countries manure management legislation needs to be tightened to control environmental pollution. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Vu Q.D.,Copenhagen University | Tran T.M.,Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute | Nguyen P.D.,Soils and Fertilizers Research Institute | Vu C.C.,National Institute of Animal Science | And 2 more authors.
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2012

Increased demand for meat products has led to increased livestock production in Vietnam, which now risks environmental pollution from inappropriate animal manure management on livestock farms. Biogas technology is generally considered an efficient solution for such farms to produce renewable biofuel for use in the household and to reduce the pollution impact from animal waste. However, with biogas technology, farmers may reduce their use of manure for fertilising crops. This field survey investigated nutrient flows on small- and medium-scale livestock farms with and without biogas in Northern Vietnam, in order to identify existing problems and possibilities for sustainable livestock production. A field survey was conducted on 12 pig farms with biogas and 12 pig farms without biogas in Quoc Oai district, Hanoi city. In general, the non-biogas pig farms used on average 3. 8 ton compost and 3. 1 ton fresh solid manure ha-1crop-1 for each of three crops typically grown per year on their arable land. They discharged on average 16 % of the total manure produced into the environment in liquid form through the public sewage system. On biogas pig farms, the use of fresh solid manure for crops and discharge of liquid manure was lower, as manure was used to produce biogas. However, excessive use of washing water on several of these farms resulted in very dilute slurry (solid manure:water ratio 1:11) entering the biogas digester. This lowered the retention time in the digester (below the optimum range of 35-55 days), leading to low biogas production rates and possible accumulation of sediment. The digestate was also highly diluted and hence difficult and costly to transport and apply to crops, so it was largely (60 %) discharged to the environment. The input volume of washing water should therefore be reduced to a ratio of 1:5. For better sustainability, appropriate technologies are needed to absorb nutrients from the digestate before discharge and to recycle these nutrients to crops. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Giang H.H.,Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development | Viet T.Q.,National Institute of Animal Science | Ogle B.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Lindberg J.E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2011

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Bacillus, Saccharomyces and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on performance and nutrient digestibility in grower and finisher pigs. In Exp. 1, 80 pigs (32 females and 48 males), 28.7±0.9 kg body weight (BW), were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups balanced for sex and weight (5 pigs per pen, 4 pens per treatment). They were fed one of four diets: a basal grower (20-50 kg BW) and finisher (>50 kg BW) diet without any addition of probiotic or antibiotic (diet C), the basal diet supplemented with Bacillus subtilis H4 (diet B), diet B supplemented with Saccharomyces boulardi Sb (diet BS) and diet BS supplemented with a LAB complex (diet BSL). The LAB complex consisted of Enterococcus faecium 6H2, Lactobacillus acidophilus C3, Pediococcus pentosaceus D7, and Lactobacillus fermentum NC1. In Exp. 2, 16 male pigs, 29.2±0.8 kg BW, were kept in individual pens and divided into 4 groups (4 pigs in each group). All 4 groups were given exactly the same growing-period diets (diet C, B, BS and BSL) as in Exp 1. The total faeces and urine were collected during 5 days (day 20-24) to determine nitrogen retention and total tract digestibility. In the growing period, average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not affected by diet B and BS (p>0.05), but ADG increased (+5.9%) (p<0.05) and FCR improved (+5.9%) (p<0.05) on diet BSL compared with the control, although ADFI was not different (p>0.05). Digestibility of crude protein and organic matter was higher (p<0.05) in diet BSL and digestibility of crude fibre was higher (p<0.05) in diet BS and BSL than in diet C. Nitrogen retention was not affected by diet (p>0.05). The faecal LAB counts were increased in grower pigs fed diet BSL (p<0.05) and faecal E. coli counts were decreased in pigs fed diets BS and BSL (p<0.05). In the finishing period, no effects of diet were found in ADFI, ADG, FCR, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen retention (p>0.05). Faecal LAB and E. coli counts in the finisher pigs were not affected by diet (p>0.05). In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that a mixture of bacteria and yeast has the potential to be used as a probiotic dietary supplement in grower pigs.


Kwon W.-S.,Chung - Ang University | Rahman M.S.,Chung - Ang University | Lee J.-S.,Chung - Ang University | Kim J.,Chung - Ang University | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015

Background: Mammalian spermatozoa must undergo capacitation, before becoming competent for fertilization. Despite its importance, the fundamental molecular mechanisms of capacitation are poorly understood. Therefore, in this study, we applied a proteomic approach for identifying capacitation-related proteins in boar spermatozoa in order to elucidate the events more precisely. 2-DE gels were generated from spermatozoa samples in before- and after-capacitation. To validate the 2-DE results, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry were performed with 2 commercially available antibodies. Additionally, the protein-related signaling pathways among identified proteins were detected using Pathway Studio 9.0. Result: We identified Ras-related protein Rab-2, Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) and Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta (PDHB) that were enriched before-capacitation, and NADH dehydrogenase 1 beta subcomplex 6, Mitochondrial peroxiredoxin-5, (PRDX5), Apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1), Mitochondrial Succinyl-CoA ligase [ADP-forming] subunit beta (SUCLA2), Acrosin-binding protein, Ropporin-1A, and Spermadhesin AWN that were enriched after-capacitation (>3-fold) by 2-DE and ESI-MS/MS. SUCLA2 and PDHB are involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, whereas PHGPx and PRDX5 are involved in glutathione metabolism. SUCLA2, APOA1 and PDHB mediate adipocytokine signaling and insulin action. The differentially expressed proteins following capacitation are putatively related to sperm functions, such as ROS and energy metabolism, motility, hyperactivation, the acrosome reaction, and sperm-egg interaction. Conclusion: The results from this study elucidate the proteins involved in capacitation, which may aid in the design of biomarkers that can be used to predict boar sperm quality. © 2014 Kwon et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Bruun S.,Copenhagen University | Jensen L.S.,Copenhagen University | Khanh Vu V.T.,National Institute of Animal science | Sommer S.,University of Southern Denmark
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

There are a number of advantages to small-scale biogas production on farms, including savings on firewood or fossil fuels and reductions in odour and greenhouse gas emissions. For these reasons, governments and development aid agencies have supported the installation of biogas digesters. However, biogas digesters are often poorly managed and there is a lack of proper distribution systems for biogas. This results in methane being released inadvertently through leaks in digesters and tubing, and intentionally when production exceeds demand. As methane has a global warming potential 25 times greater than that of carbon dioxide, this compromises the environmental advantages of digesters. Calculations performed in this paper indicate that the break-even point at which the released methane has as great an impact on global warming as the fuel that has been replaced occurs when between 3% and 51% of the produced biogas is released, depending on the type of fuel that has been replaced. The limited information available as regards methane leaking from small-scale biogas digesters in developing countries indicates that emissions may be as high as 40%. With the best estimates of global numbers of small-scale digesters and their biogas production, this corresponds to methane losses of 4.5 Tg yr -1 or about 1% of global emissions or 10% as much as emissions from rice production. Further poliferation of small-scale digesters could therefore contribute significantly to global emissions of methane. It is therefore important that governments and development aid agencies place stricter requirements on digester maintenance and biogas handling before incentives are created and legislation introduced for the installation of small-scale biogas digesters. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Ngoc T.T.B.,National Institute of Animal science | Len N.T.,National Institute of Animal science | Ogle B.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Lindberg J.E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of fibre source (cassava residue, CR and sweet potato vines, SPV), particle size (1. mm and 3. mm screen size) and multi-enzyme supplementation (mixture of α-amylase, β-glucanase, cellulase and protease) on growth performance and the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) in weaning and growing pigs (Landrace × Yorkshire). The experimental diets were based on maize, fish meal, full fat soybean, soybean meal, soybean oil and CR or SPV. The dietary levels of CR and SPV were 200 and 350. g/kg (as fed) in the post-weaning and growing period, respectively. The experiment was arranged according to a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial completely randomized design with five replications, and lasted 60 days with two periods: from 30 to 60 days of age (post-weaning) and 60 to 90 days of age (growing). In each period, pigs fed the CR diet had higher CTTAD of dietary components (except for ether extract), average daily gain and lower feed conversion ratio than those fed the SPV diet (P<0.05). The reduction in particle size increased the CTTAD of dietary components and average daily gain in the post-weaning period (P<0.05), but not in the growing period (P>0.05). Addition of the enzyme mixture improved the CTTAD and growth performance in the post-weaning period (P<0.05). There was an interaction between particle size and multi-enzyme supplementation on the CTTAD of crude protein and neutral detergent fibre (P<0.05) in the post-weaning period, such that multi-enzyme supplementation increased the CTTAD of CP and NDF in the larger particle size diet (0.80 versus 0.75, and 0.58 versus 0.51, respectively), while there was no changes in the small particle size diet (0.80 versus 0.78, and 0.59 versus 0.55, respectively). However, in the growing period multi-enzyme supplementation had no positive effect on the performance and the CTTAD of dietary components, with the exception of the CTTAD of crude protein and neutral detergent fibre. In conclusion, a reduction in particle size and multi-enzyme supplementation improved the CTTAD of dietary components and the growth performance in the post-weaning period, but not in the growing period. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Vu C.C.,National Institute of Animal science | Verstegen M.W.A.,Wageningen University | Hendriks W.H.,Wageningen University | Pham K.C.,National Institute of Animal science
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2011

The in vivo digestibility of mulberry leaves (Morus alba) and the effects of the partial replacement of cotton seed with fresh mulberry leaf in rations on the performance of growing Vietnamese cattle was investigated. For the in vivo digestibility trial, twenty castrated rams of Phanrang breed (a local prolific breed) with an initial weight of 23-25 kg, were first assigned to four groups according to weight and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments to determine digestibility of nutrients in mulberry leaves (M. alba), natural Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and buffalo grass (Panicum maximum cv. TD 58). All forages were cut and chopped daily before being offered (at 120% maintenance) to the sheep. In the feeding trial, 20 Laisind (Vietnam yellow cowsxRed Sindhy bulls) crossbred bulls averaged 18 month old and 184 kg were used to investigate the effect of partial replacement of cottonseed in the diet by mulberry leaves on live weight gain and feed conversion rate. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four levels of fresh mulberry leaves which varied from 0 to 15% of total dietary dry mater and five animals per treatment over an 84 day period. The in vivo digestion trial showed the superior quality of mulberry leaves compared with the grasses. Chemical analysis indicated that mulberry leaves had the highest CP and the lowest NDF contents (22.3 and 31.1% DM, respectively) among the four forages tested. Digestibility of DM and OM of the mulberry leaf (66.4 and 71.8%, respectively) was also the highest but that of CP (58.2%) and NDF (58.4%) was the lowest of the four forages evaluated (p<0.05). Consequently, the ME value and therefore net energy (NE) and unit feed for lactation (UFL) values of the mulberry leaves, which was estimated from chemical composition and digestibility values, were the highest among the forages investigated in the present study. Results of the feeding trial showed no treatment effect on average daily gain (ADG) of the cattle. The values were 554, 583, 565 and 568 g/d for animals in the diets of 0, 5, 10, and 15% mulberry leaves inclusion, respectively. Total DM intake of the animal was not affected by the treatment when expressed as kg/animal/d. However, when adjusted for metabolic weight of the animal the DM intake was reduced (p<0.05) as whole cottonseed was replaced by mulberry leaves in the ration. When the level of mulberry leaves in the ration increased from 5 to 15% of dietary DM at the expense of whole cottonseed, CP and ME intakes of the cattle were significantly decreased (p<0.05) and the feed to gain ratio reduced by 8 to 14% as compared with the control diet (p<0.05). Mulberry leaf is a good feed ingredient for ruminants because of its high level of crude protein and high digestibility of nutrients and energy. Mulberry leaves can be efficiently used as a source of protein supplement to replace cottonseed, a more expensive animal feeds ingredient, in the diet for Vietnamese cattle.


Giang H.H.,Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development | Viet T.Q.,National Institute of Animal Science | Ogle B.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Lindberg J.E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Livestock Science | Year: 2012

Growth performance, digestibility, gut environment and health status were studied in weaned piglets (26-28. days of age) fed a diet without (C) or with supplementation of bacteria and a yeast (diets L, LB and LBS). Diet L was supplemented with a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) complex (Enterococcus faecium 6H2, Lactobacillus acidophilus C3, Pediococcus pentosaceus D7, and L. fermentum NC1), diet LB with the LAB complex and Bacillus subtilis H4, and diet LBS with the LAB complex, B. subtilis H4 and Saccharomyces boulardii Sb. Piglets fed diets L, LB and LBS had higher feed intake and daily gain, lower feed conversion ratio, higher ileal and total tract digestibility, and had a lower incidence of diarrhoea and a lower faecal score than piglets fed diet C (P < 0.01). Diets L, LB and LBS increased the intestinal LAB population and organic acid concentrations, and reduced E. coli counts. Supplementation with B. subtilis H4 and S. boulardii Sb resulted in higher digestibility than when supplementing with the LAB complex alone. Supplementation with S. boulardii Sb resulted in lower incidence of diarrhoea and lower faecal score than supplementation with the LAB complex alone or together with B. subtilis H4. The LAB complexes used in the current study had probiotic properties and could be used to improve the health status of weaned piglets under Vietnamese conditions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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