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Vu T.K.V.,National Institute of Animal Husbandry | Sommer G.S.,University of Southern Denmark | Vu C.C.,National Institute of Animal Husbandry | Jorgensen H.,University of Aarhus
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2010

Livestock production in Vietnam is, as in most Asian countries, increasing rapidly and changing into specialized highly intensified operations. The volume of animal excreta generated exceeds the capacity of the operation land base and cannot be utilized efficiently. As a consequence, there is a loss of plant nutrients from livestock farms that causes environmental pollution. This study carried out a feed and excretion experiment measuring fecal characteristic, daily fecal production, daily nitrogen and phosphorous excretion from grower-finisher pigs fed prevalent rations in Vietnam. Furthermore, equations for assessing the excretion were tested, which can be used in farm models for optimal recycling of manure while focusing on reducing pollution. The results indicated that fecal production and nutrient excretion were affected by the different rations tested. This study showed that five selected equations for predicting excretion from grower-finisher pigs in Danish conditions can also be used with precision in Vietnamese pig farming systems. The equations have been proven valid and can, therefore, be used as a much needed tool for assessing fecal production and nitrogen in excreta on pig farms. The study also showed that about 12% of nitrogen excreted was emitted during housing. Waste water contains more than half of the nitrogen excreted, mainly in ammonium form which has a high potential for gaseous emission.

Van Dung D.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ba N.X.,Hue University | Van N.H.,Hue University | Phung L.D.,Hue University | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2013

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of crude protein (CP) level in concentrate (experiment 1) and concentrate level (experiment 2) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) retention, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentration and average daily gain (ADG) of Vietnamese local fattening cattle. Animals (24 cattle, initial live weight (LW) 150.3 ± 11.8 kg in experiment 1 and 145.1 ± 9.8 kg in experiment 2) were allotted based on LW to one of four treatments in a randomised complete block design. In experiment 1, concentrate with four levels of CP (10, 13, 16 and 19 %) was fed at 1.5 % of LW. In experiment 2, concentrate was fed at 1.0, 1.4, 1.8 and 2.2 % of LW. In both experiments, roughage was 5 kg/day native grass and ad libitum rice straw (fresh basis). Results showed that the CP level in concentrate significantly affected dry matter (DM) intake (P < 0.05), N retention, ADG and ruminal NH3-N concentration (P < 0.01), but it had no significant effect on DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility (P > 0.05), whereas CP digestibility increased (P < 0.001) along with the CP level. DM intake, N retention and ADG increased (P < 0.001) linearly with concentrate intake. DM and CP digestibility were not significantly affected by concentrate intake (P > 0.05). OM digestibility and NH3-N concentration increased linearly (P < 0.05), whereas NDF digestibility and ruminal pH declined linearly with increased concentrate consumption (P < 0.01). These results indicate that 16 % CP in concentrate and feeding concentrate at the rate of 2.2 % of LW are recommendable for fattening local cattle in Vietnam. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Hue K.T.,Goat and Rabbit Research Center | Van D.T.T.,National Institute of Animal Husbandry | Ledin I.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Sporndly E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Wredle E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

Weaned lambs of the Phan Rang breed with an initial weight of 15.0 kg and 3.5 months of age were used to study the effects of feeding fresh, wilted and sun-dried cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta Crantz) on feed intake, digestibility, growth performance, HCN consumed and thiocyanate concentration in urine during 24 h. The treatments were three diets containing guinea grass (Panicum maximum) and cassava chips supplemented with fresh cassava foliage (FCFd), wilted cassava foliage (WCFd) or cassava hay (CHd). Six male lambs were used in a digestibility trial in a double 3×3 Latin square design and twenty-four lambs (6 males and 18 females) in a growth trial lasting 84 days. Dry matter intake ranged from 33 to 36 g/kg body weight. No significant difference between treatments was observed in live weight gain, which was 73.1, 76.7 and 75.6 g/day for FCFd, WCFd and CHd, respectively. The DM digestibility was significantly higher, 674 and 687 g/kg DM for FCFd and WCFd, compared to 600 g/kg DM for CHd. The nitrogen retained was 3.2, 3.8 and 3.5 g/day for FCFd, WCFd and CHd, respectively, and was not significantly different among treatments. Hydrogen cyanide content in fresh cassava foliage, wilted cassava foliage and cassava hay was 333, 217 and 60 mg/kg DM, and the amount consumed was significantly different among treatments, 114.6, 86.6 and 25.5 mg/day for FCFd, WCFd and CHd, respectively. The thiocyanate concentration in the urine of the lambs from diet CHd was significantly lower compared to diets FCFd and WCFd, where the thiocyanate level in urine increased from before feeding, reaching a peak at 12 h after feeding and then decreasing. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Huyen L.T.T.,National Institute of Animal Husbandry | Herold P.,University of Hohenheim | Valle Zarate A.,University of Hohenheim
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to compare the management and economic success of beef production by three types of farm in northwestern Vietnam. The potential of household farms to supply beef for the market and their competition with large farms were examined. The fieldwork was done in 2007 on 73 farms consisting of 58 small mixed farms (small farms), 10 medium mixed farms (medium farms) and 5 specialised large-scale beef farms (large farms) in Son La province. The three types of farm differed in ethnicity (Thai, H'mong, and Kinh), remoteness (lowland, highland), production objectives (subsistence, market output), degree of specialization (mixed farm, specialised beef farm) and integration of production (single farmers, cooperative). Data on biological productivity, inputs and outputs, and the social contribution of cattle production were collected by household and key person interviews, participatory rural appraisal tools and cattle body measurements. Economic values were derived by assessment of market or replacement costs. Quantitative data analysis was done with linear models (PROC GLM) in the SAS software (version 9.1). Lowland small farms had higher costs for cattle production than the highland farms (0.8 Mill. VND head-1 year-1 compared with 0.02 Mill. VND head-1 year-1, respectively). The large farms had high production costs, with an average of 2.5-3.6 Mill. VND head-1 year-1. Cattle brought high benefits of non-cash values to the household farms. The total revenue from cattle was in the range 4.5-11.5 Mill. VND head-1 year-1, which depended on the use of non-market functions of cattle on the household farm. The value of net benefit/kg live weight (LW) of lowland small farms with an average of 39,000 VND/kg LW was significantly higher than that of the medium and small farms in the highlands (26,000 VND/kg LW). However, the small farms kept fewer cattle than the medium farms (average of 2-4 cattle/farm compared with 9 cattle/farm, respectively) because of forage and labour shortages and have no option to further develop cattle production. Keeping larger numbers of cattle based on available natural pasture brought high benefit from stock value as farm liquidity to only the medium farms. This was the most promising type of farm for future development of beef production, given its actual success and the availability of underutilised resources. Large-scale farms suffered high economic losses of 0.3-1.4 Mill. VND cattle-1 year-1, due to the lack of professional management, high feed costs and low animal performance, and showed no potential for developing cattle production. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Desvaux S.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Desvaux S.,Murdoch University | Grosbois V.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Pham T.T.H.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 7 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2013

SUMMARY The domestic poultry population in Vietnam has been vaccinated against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 since 2005. Since then, outbreaks have continued to occur without a clear understanding of the mechanisms involved. The general objective of this study was to understand the epidemiology of the disease in the context of vaccination and to draw some conclusions about vaccination efficacy in the domestic poultry population of the Red River Delta area. Five cross-sectional surveys to measure the serological and virological prevalence in vaccinated and unvaccinated poultry were performed from the end of 2008 to June 2010. The global seroprevalence was 24% (95% confidence interval 19.9-28.2). Determinants of vaccine immunogenicity were identified separately in chickens and ducks as well as determinants of the seroconversion in unvaccinated birds. The results highlight the difficulties in maintaining good flock immunity in poultry populations using inactivated vaccine in the field with two vaccination rounds per year, and in preventing circulation of virus in co-existing unvaccinated poultry. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012.

Thang C.M.,National Institute of Animal Husbandry | Ledin I.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Bertilsson J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

The effects of feeding different levels of energy and protein using cassava products (Manihot esculenta Crantz) (roots and foliage) in the diet on growth rate and diet digestibility were studied in two experiments with growing cattle. In the growth trial, twenty-eight animals were allocated to a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design with seven animals per diet. The four diets consisted of two levels of crude protein (CP) (400 g and 540 g day- 1) and two levels of metabolisable energy (ME) (25 MJ and 32 MJ day- 1). The diets were formulated based on the nutrient content of cassava foliage, cassava roots, urea and elephant grass. The amount of urea was the same in all diets, 63 g head- 1 day- 1, on DM basis. The digestibility trial was conducted after two months of the growth experiment. The lowest values of OM and GE digestibility were in the group fed the high CP and low ME level, while the group fed the low CP and high ME level had the lowest CP digestibility. There was a significant linear regression between OM digestibility and HCN intake and tannin intake in the groups fed on the low energy level. There was no significant difference in live weight gain between the groups fed either low ME, or high ME and low CP. The highest nutrient digestibilities were found in the group fed both high CP and ME resulting in a significantly higher daily gain, 558 g day- 1. In conclusion, an increased level of CP and ME in the diet, achieved using cassava products, improved diet digestibility and growth rate of cattle fed low quality grasses. In order to overcome the negative effect of HCN, cattle fed high amounts of cassava foliage should be supplied with extra energy in the diet. © 2009.

Giang H.H.,Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development | Viet T.Q.,National Institute of Animal Husbandry | Ogle B.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Lindberg J.E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

Ninety-six weaned (21-23. days of age) piglets (L × Y) from 12. litters were divided into 4 groups and fed a piglet diet ad libitum without and with supplementation of 600. ppm of one of three selected probiotic complexes in a 35-day growth trial. Piglets fed probiotic diets had higher feed intake and daily gain, and better feed conversion, than the control group (P<0.05) during the 1st two weeks after weaning. There was no effect of probiotic supplementation on performance (P>0.05) during weeks 3 to 5 after weaning. The concentration of lactic and acetic acid was higher (P<0.05) in ileum and colon of piglets fed probiotic diets on days 14 and 35, while propionic acid was higher only in the ileum on day 35 (P<0.05). There were no differences among the different probiotic complexes (P>0.05). © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Giang H.H.,Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development | Viet T.Q.,National Institute of Animal Husbandry | Ogle B.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Lindberg J.E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

The impact of supplementing a diet with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) complexes of LAB selected for probiotic properties, on growth performance, digestibility, gut environment and health status was studied in weaned piglets. Ninety-six (48 females and 48 males) piglets (L × Y) from 12 litters, weaned at 21-23 days of age (6.6 ± 0.5 kg body weight), were selected and divided randomly into 4 groups balanced for sex, weight and litter origin. In each group, the piglets were divided randomly into 4 pens (replicates), and each group was fed one of 4 diets for 35 days. A basal diet without antibiotics or probiotics was used as control, and the other 3 groups were fed the control diet supplemented with 600 ppm of one of three different LAB complexes, comprising combinations of Enterococcus faecium 6H2, Lactobacillus acidophilus C3, Pediococcus pentosaceus D7, L. plantarum 1K8 and L. plantarum 3K2. Supplementation with LAB complexes increased (P < 0.05) daily feed intake and weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio, but there were no differences among the LAB treatments (P > 0.05). In the first 2 weeks after weaning, supplementation with LAB complexes increased (P < 0.05) the ileal apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF) and organic matter, and the total tract apparent digestibility of CP and CF. Supplementation with LAB complexes increased the LAB counts at all sampling sites (P < 0.05) at days 14 and 35 post-weaning and increased the concentrations of lactic acid and acetic acid (P < 0.05) in ileum and colon. Counts of E. coli remained unaffected by LAB complex supplementation (P > 0.05). In the first 2 weeks after weaning, piglets fed diets supplemented with LAB complexes were less affected by diarrhoea than piglets fed the control diet suggesting that the LAB complexes tested have probiotic properties in weaned piglets. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Cuong N.V.,Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology | Thu N.T.,Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology | Thoa T.T.,Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology | Hoan T.X.,National Institute of Animal Husbandry | And 2 more authors.
South African Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

The objectives of this study were to analyse genotype distribution and sequence variations of candidate genes putatively associated with meat quality and disease resistance in exotic and indigenous Vietnamese pig breeds. For this purpose, 340 pigs from four indigenous and two exotic breeds were included in the analysis of the polymorphisms of the heart fatty-acid-binding protein (H-FABP), alpha 1 fucosyltransferase (FUT1), and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) genes by the sequencing and PCR-RFLP methods. For H-FABP, 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in indigenous pig breeds by direct sequencing of a fragment at intron 2 of the H-FABP gene. The mutation T1556C created a new restriction site for the enzyme MspI, which gave rise to new allelic variants in three indigenous pig breeds. In indigenous breeds, the frequency of the favourable alleles a and d at MspI and HaeIII sites of the H-FABP gene were low. Meanwhile, the frequency of the d allele at the HaeIII site in exotic breeds was significantly higher than those of indigenous pig breeds. No mutation was found in the RFLP-fragment of the FUT1 gene of four indigenous pig breeds by sequencing, while in the BPI gene two mutations were detected in the Tap Na breed. The resistant alleles of the FUT1 and BPI genes in the exotic breeds were significantly higher than those of indigenous pig breeds. Among the indigenous pig breeds, the Tap Na breed possessed a higher frequency of the resistant allele G of BPI gene than the remaining breeds. The T1556C mutation at H-FABP may be important for the genetic improvement of intramuscular fat content and breed. Tap Na may be a source of resistant alleles for local ecologies.

Salgado P.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Le Hoa B.,National Institute of Animal Husbandry | Tran V.T.,National Institute of Animal Husbandry | Vu Chi C.,National Institute of Animal Husbandry | And 2 more authors.
Grass and Forage Science | Year: 2010

In North Vietnam, during winter, shortage of herbage constrains the profitability of dairy farming. The first objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of alternative temperate (C3) forage species, namely common oat (Avena sativa L.), lop-sided oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) and a commercial forage mixture (Avex), to address the shortage of herbage during winter in the mountain regions of North Vietnam. The second objective was to measure the effects of cultural practices (sowing rate, harvest interval and irrigation level) on yield of dry matter (DM), chemical composition, digestibility of DM and metabolizable energy (ME) concentration of herbage from the best adapted C3 species previously tested (lop-sided oat). Four experiments were conducted. Oat species proved to be the best adapted species and produced the highest annual yield of herbage (7600 kg DM ha-1) with a high nutritive value. Yields of DM of lop-sided oat were not affected by sowing rate of seed but increased as the length of harvest intervals increased from 30 to 45 and 60 d (P < 0·001). Crude protein concentration, digestibility of DM and ME concentration decreased as the harvest interval increased (P < 0·01). Irrigation increased the yields of DM of lop-sided oats by 1·3 (P < 0·05) but had no effect on the nutritive value of herbage. It is concluded that both common oat and lop-sided oat are suitable species to provide herbage in the winter for the mountain regions of North Vietnam. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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