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Chirathaworn C.,University of Sfax | Inwattana R.,University of Sfax | Poovorawan Y.,University of Sfax | Suwancharoen D.,National Institute of Animal Health
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2014

Determination of antibody titer by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) has been used as a tool for leptospirosis diagnosis. Four fold or greater rise in antibody titers between acute and convalescent sera suggests recent Leptospira infection. In addition, results obtained by MAT have been used to predict infecting serovars. However, cross reactivity among various Leptospira serovars have been reported when patient sera were tested with a battery of Leptospira serovars. This study demonstrates cross- reactivity among several Leptospira serovars when MAT was performed on leptospirosis sera. The data support a role of MAT as a tool for diagnosis. However, for information on infecting serovars, Leptospira isolation and molecular identification should be performed. © 2014 by the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine.

Suputtamongkol Y.,Mahidol University | Pongtavornpinyo W.,Mahidol University | Lubell Y.,Mahidol University | Suttinont C.,Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital | And 7 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2010

Background: Symptoms and signs of leptospirosis are non-specific. Several diagnostic tests for leptospirosis are available and in some instances are being used prior to treatment of leptospirosis-suspected patients. There is therefore a need to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the different treatment strategies in order to avoid misuse of scarce resources and ensure best possible health outcomes for patients. Methods: The study population was adult patients, presented with uncomplicated acute febrile illness, without an obvious focus of infection or malaria or typical dengue infection. We compared the cost and effectiveness of 5 management strategies: 1) no patients tested or given antibiotic treatment; 2) all patients given empirical doxycycline treatment; patients given doxycycline when a patient is tested positive for leptospirosis using: 3) lateral flow; 4) MCAT; 5) latex test. The framework used is a cost-benefit analysis, accounting for all direct medical costs in diagnosing and treating patients suspected of leptospirosis. Outcomes are measured in length of fever after treatment which is then converted to productivity losses to capture the full economic costs. Findings: Empirical doxycycline treatment was the most efficient strategy, being both the least costly alternative and the one that resulted in the shortest duration of fever. The limited sensitivity of all three diagnostic tests implied that their use to guide treatment was not cost-effective. The most influential parameter driving these results was the cost of treating patients with complications for patients who did not receive adequate treatment as a result of incorrect diagnosis or a strategy of no-antibiotic-treatment. Conclusions: Clinicians should continue treating suspected cases of leptospirosis on an empirical basis. This conclusion holds true as long as policy makers are not prioritizing the reduction of use of antibiotics, in which case the use of the latex test would be the most efficient strategy. © 2010 Suputtamongkol et al.

Makhanon M.,Chulalongkorn University | Tummaruk P.,Chulalongkorn University | Thongkamkoon P.,National Institute of Animal Health | Thanawongnuwech R.,Chulalongkorn University | Prapasarakul N.,Chulalongkorn University
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to investigate whether direct PCR (DP) gave similar results to culture prior to PCR (CPP) for detecting mycoplasmas in different types of pig tissues. A total of 724 samples obtained from lungs, tonsils, or synovial fluids from 270 slaughtered pigs were used. The history of clinical signs, lung score, and the presence of joint lesions were recorded during sample collection. The rates of detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, and Mycoplasma hyorhinis using both procedures were evaluated. The overall prevalences of M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyosynoviae, and M. hyorhinis were 40. 3%, 12. 3%, and 64. 6%, respectively, and the detection rate depended on the sample type and the procedure used. With lung tissue, DP gave a higher detection rate for M. hyopneumoniae (77. 4%) than CPP (38. 5%). M. hyorhinis was detected by CPP at 15. 6% and 18. 1% and by DP at 31. 5% and 5. 2%, respectively. The positive rate derived from tonsil from CPP was closed to that of DP. Using synovial fluid could not yield any positive M. hyorhinis from CPP whereas 37. 2% was positive from DP. In contrast, using sample tissue from lung and tonsil by CPP could show much higher positive number than that of DP. There was a significant relationship between joint lesion and M. hyorhinis detection by DP (P< 0. 05) but not for M. hyosynoviae and M. hyorhinis detected by CPP. We speculated that lung was a proper sample for M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis detection by DP and CPP, respectively. Tonsil was likely the community of persistent M. hyosynoviae and M. hyorhinis with highly detection by CPP. Synovial fluid was apparently unsuitable for mycoplasmal culture. The accuracy of mycoplasmal detection may depend upon the type of sample relevant to the detection procedure used. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Chukiatsiri K.,Chulalongkorn University | Sasipreeyajan J.,Chulalongkorn University | Blackall P.J.,University of Queensland | Yuwatanichsampan S.,National Institute of Animal Health | Chansiripornchai N.,Chulalongkorn University
Avian Diseases | Year: 2012

Avibacterium paragallinarum causes infectious coryza in chickens, an acute respiratory disease that has worldwide economic significance. The objectives of this study were to determine the serovars, antimicrobial resistance, and pathogenicity of A. paragallinarum isolated from chickens in Thailand. Eighteen field isolates of A. paragallinarum were confirmed by PCR. When examined by serotyping in a hemagglutination inhibition test, 10 isolates were serovar A, five isolates were serovar B, and three isolates were serovar C. The susceptibility of the isolates to 16 antimicrobial agents was tested by a disk diffusion method. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillinclavulanic acid. There was a high level of resistance to lincomycin and erythromycin. All isolates were resistant to cloxacillin and neomycin. A study of bacterial entry into, and survival within, chicken macrophages showed variation between isolates but no clear connection to serovar. A virulence test was performed by challenging 4-wk-old layers via the nasal route with 400 l of bacteria (10 8 colony-forming units/ml). Clinical signs were observed daily for 7 days, and the birds were subjected to a postmortem necropsy at 7 days postchallenge. All 18 field isolates caused the typical clinical signs of infectious coryza and could be re-isolated at 7 days after challenge. There was no significant difference in the clinical scores of the isolates except that two isolates (112179 and 102984, serovars A and B, respectively) gave a significantly higher score than did isolate CMU1009 (a serovar A isolate). No correlation between serovar and severity of clinical signs was found. © American Association of Avian Pathologists.

Suwancharoen D.,National Institute of Animal Health | Chaisakdanugull Y.,Bureau of Disease Control and Veterinary Services | Thanapongtharm W.,Bureau of Disease Control and Veterinary Services | Yoshida S.,Kyushu University
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2013

SUMMARY A cross-sectional serological survey was conducted during January to August 2001 to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira serovars in five species of livestock in Thailand and to identify associations between seropositivity and sex, age, species and geographical locations. Sera from 14188 livestock (9288 cattle, 1376 buffaloes, 1898 pigs, 1110 sheep, 516 goats) from 36 provinces were tested for antibodies against 24 Leptospira serovars with the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for which the criterion for a positive result was set at a titre of â©1:50. A total of 1635 [11·5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 11·0-12·0] animals were seropositive and the highest prevalence (30·4%, 95% CI 28·2-32·5) of evidence of infection was recorded in the northeast region followed by the central region (22·2%, 95% CI 20-24·6). Seroprevalences recorded for cattle, buffaloes, pigs, sheep and goats were 9·9% (95% CI 9·3-10·5), 30·5% (95% CI 28·1-32·9), 10·8% (95% CI 9·5-12·3), 4·7% (95% CI 3·6-6·1) and 7·9% (95% CI 5·8-10·5), respectively. Buffaloes were 3·1 (95% CI 2·8-3·4) times more likely than cattle to be seropositive. The most commonly detected antibodies were against L. interrogans serovars Ranarum, Sejroe, and Mini in cattle, Mini, Sejroe, and Bratislava in buffaloes, Ranarum, Pomona, and Bratislava in pigs and Mini, Shermani, and Ranarum in sheep and goats. Seroprevalences in cattle and buffaloes trended upwards with increasing age and there was no difference in the risk of seropositivity between males and females. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.

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