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Horn T.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Horn T.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Adel S.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Schumann R.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | And 7 more authors.
Progress in Lipid Research | Year: 2015

Leukotrienes are pro-inflammatory lipid mediators, which are biosynthesized via the lipoxygenase pathway of the arachidonic acid cascade. Lipoxygenases form a family of lipid peroxidizing enzymes and human lipoxygenase isoforms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory, hyperproliferative (cancer) and neurodegenerative diseases. Lipoxygenases are not restricted to humans but also occur in a large number of pro- and eucaryotic organisms. Lipoxygenase-like sequences have been identified in the three domains of life (bacteria, archaea, eucarya) but because of lacking functional data the occurrence of catalytically active lipoxygenases in archaea still remains an open question. Although the physiological and/or pathophysiological functions of various lipoxygenase isoforms have been studied throughout the last three decades there is no unifying concept for the biological importance of these enzymes. In this review we are summarizing the current knowledge on the distribution of lipoxygenases in living single and multicellular organisms with particular emphasis to higher vertebrates and will also focus on the genetic diversity of enzymes and receptors involved in human leukotriene signaling. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Yeggoni D.P.,University of Hyderabad | Rachamallu A.,National Institute of Animal Biotechnology | Subramanyam R.,University of Hyderabad
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology | Year: 2016

Here, we present the inclusive binding mode of phytochemical embelin, an anticancer drug with human serum albumin (HSA) established under physiological condition. Also, to understand the pharmacological role of embelin molecule, here, we have studied the anti-cancer activity of embelin on human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa cell line), which revealed that embelin showed dose dependent inhibition in the growth of cancer cells and also induces 26.3% of apoptosis at an IC50 value of 29 μM. Further, embelin was titrated with HSA and the fluorescence emission quenching of HSA due to the formation of the HSA-embelin complex was observed. The binding constant of this complex is 5.9 ±.01 × 104 M- 1 and the number of bound embelin molecules is approximately 1.0. Consequently, molecular displacement and computational docking experiments show that the embelin is binding to subdomain IB to HSA. Further evidence from microTOF-Q mass spectrometry showed an increase in mass from 66,563 Da to 66,857 Da observed for free HSA and HSA + embelin complex, signifying that there is robust binding of embelin with HSA. In addition, the variations of HSA secondary structural elements in presence of embelin were confirmed by circular dichroism which indicates partial unfolding of protein. Furthermore, the transmission electron micrographs established that complex formation leads to aggregation of HSA plus embelin. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the stability of the HSA-embelin complexes and results suggests that at around 3500 ps the complex reaches equilibration state which clearly contributes to the understanding of the stability of the HSA-embelin complexes. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Khan A.,Qassim University | Aljarbou A.N.,Qassim University | Aldebasi Y.H.,Qassim University | Faisal S.M.,Cornell University | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2014

In breast cancer cells, overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) increases the translation of fatty acid synthase (FASN) by altering the activity of PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cancer chemotherapy causes major side effects and is not effective enough in slowing down the progression of the disease. Earlier studies showed a role for resveratrol in the inhibition of FASN, but the molecular mechanisms of resveratrol-induced inhibition are not known. In the present study, we examined the novel mechanism of resveratrol on Her2-overexpressed breast cancer cells.The effect of resveratrol on the growth of breast cancer cells was assessed as percent cell viability by cytotoxicity-based MTT assay and the induction of apoptosis was determined by cell-death detection ELISA and flow cytometric analysis of Annexin-V-PI binding. Western immunobloting was used to detect signaling events in human breast cancer (SKBR-3) cells.Data showed that resveratrol-mediated down-regulation of FASN and HER2 genes synergistically induced apoptotic death in SKBR-3 cells. This concurrently caused a prominent up-regulation of PEA3, leads to down-regulation of HER2 genes. Resveratrol also alleviated the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling by down-regulation of Akt phosphorylation and up-regulation of PTEN expression.These findings suggest that resveratrol alters the cell cycle progression and induce cell death via FASN inhibition in HER2 positive breast cancer. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Deshmukh A.S.,National Institute of Animal Biotechnology | Agarwal M.,Jawaharlal Nehru University | Dhar S.K.,Jawaharlal Nehru University
Current Genetics | Year: 2016

Regulatory roles of CDKs in fundamental processes including cell cycle progression and transcription are well conserved in metazoans. This family of proteins has undergone significant evolutionary divergence and specialization. Several CDK-like kinases have been identified and characterized in parasitic protozoans. However, clear functional role and physiological relevance of these proteins in protozoans still remain elusive. In continuation with the recent finding that CDK-like protein PfPK5 regulates important DNA replication protein like origin recognition complex subunit 1 in Plasmodium falciparum, here we have discussed the emerging significance of CDK1/2 homologs in DNA replication of parasitic protozoans. In fact, involvement of these proteins in crucial cellular processes projects them as potential drug targets. The possibilities that CDKs offer as potential therapeutic targets in controlling parasite progression have also been explored. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

Kallubai M.,University of Hyderabad | Rachamallu A.,National Institute of Animal Biotechnology | Yeggoni D.P.,University of Hyderabad | Subramanyam R.,University of Hyderabad
Molecular BioSystems | Year: 2015

Lupeol, a triterpene, possesses beneficial effects like anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Binding of lupeol and its derivative (phytochemicals) to plasma proteins such as human serum albumin (HSA) and α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is a major determinant in the disposition of drugs. Cytotoxic studies with mouse macrophages (RAW 246.7) and HeLa cell lines revealed anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties for both lupeol and lupeol derivative. Both molecules reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS induced macrophages. Further, apoptosis was observed in HeLa cell lines when they were incubated with these molecules for 24 h. The fluorescence quenching of HSA was observed upon titration with different concentrations of lupeol and lupeol derivative; their binding constants were found to be 3 ± 0.01 × 104 M-1 and 6.2 ± 0.02 × 104 M-1, with binding free energies of -6.59 kcal M-1 and -7.2 kcal M-1. With AGP, however, the lupeol and lupeol derivative showed binding constants of 0.9 ± 0.02 × 103 M-1 and 2.7 ± 0.01 × 103 M-1, with free energies of -4.6 kcal M-1 and -5.1 kcal M-1 respectively. Molecular displacement studies based on competition with site I-binding phenylbutazone (which binds site I of HSA) and ibuprofen (which binds site II) suggest that lupeol binds site II and the lupeol derivative site I. Molecular docking studies also confirmed that lupeol binds to the IIIA and the lupeol derivative to the IIA domain of HSA. Secondary structure changes were observed upon formation of HSA-lupeol/lupeol derivative complexes by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Molecular dynamics simulations support greater stability of HSA-lupeol and HSA-lupeol derivative complexes compared to that of HSA alone. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Source

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