National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia INAT

Tunis, Tunisia

National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia INAT

Tunis, Tunisia
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M'Barek S.B.,Center de Biotechnologie de la Technopole de Borj-Cedria | Bahri B.,National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia INAT | Slimane R.B.,National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia INAT | Hamza S.,National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia INAT
Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by the fungus Zymoseptoria tritici (formerly known as Mycosphaerella graminicola) is currently the most important foliar disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) in Tunisia, causing serious yield losses and affecting grain quality. Resistance breeding in durum wheat to STB can provide an effective, economic and environmentally-safe strategy to reduce yield losses. However, this is hampered by a lack of resistance sources, and a limited understanding of Z. tritici pathogenicity. Here, we report the identification of nine resistant accessions to STB upon field inoculation of 144 old local durum wheat accessions with a virulent isolate “TunBz-1”. Crosses between the resistant accessions and evaluation of F2 progenies for their reaction to TunBz-1 led to the identification of four new resistant genes, associated with Azizi27, Agili37, Agili39 and Derbessi12 landrace accessions. Random distribution of the resistant accessions in an AFLP based-dendrogram of 123 old durum wheat accessions suggested independent resistance gene-evolution. Based on the identified resistance sources, the analysis of the virulence spectrum of 55 Z. tritici isolates collected from different durum wheat-growing regions in Tunisia showed a highly significant genotype-by-isolate interaction. Furthermore, pathotype variability among Z. tritici isolates was low as the isolates were classified into two groups (I and II) that showed differential reaction on the accession Azizi27. Our results show that the old local durum wheat germplasm might harbor novel resistance genes that can be deployed in durum wheat breeding programs. © 2015, Edizioni ETS. All rights reserved.

Hadded R.,National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia INAT | Nouiri I.,National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia INAT | Alshihabi O.,The Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands | Massmann J.,Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources | And 4 more authors.
Water Resources Management | Year: 2013

This paper describes the development of a Decision Support System (DSS) for groundwater management of the 'Zeuss Koutine' aquifer in southeastern Tunisia using the WEAP-MODFLOW framework. First, a monthly MODFLOW model was developed to simulate the behaviour of the studied aquifer. A conceptual model of the study area was designed and a WEAP schematic representing the real hydraulic system was developed. In addition to the studied aquifer, other water resources available in the region, such as desalination plants and groundwater, were taken into consideration in this DSS. Inputs to the hydrogeological model include natural recharge and inflow from higher neighbouring aquifers. Outputs are mainly agricultural, touristic and urban water consumption. It was shown that the DSS developed was able to evaluate water management scenarios up to 2030, especially future water consumption, transmission link flow and active cell heads of the MODFLOW model for each time step. Results for the Zeuss Koutine aquifer demonstrated that desalination plants already built in the cities of Jerba and Zarzis have contributed to decreasing the continuous drawdown observed before 1999. The use of a sea water desalination plant to supply Jerba and Zarzis in the future is a solution for reducing the Zeuss Koutine aquifer drawdown. Defining its optimal capacity over time poses a new research question. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Rabhi M.,Health Ministry | Nouiri I.,National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia INAT | Rjeb M.C.,Laboratory Unit | Ben Hamouda M.F.,Hydrology and Geochemistry Unit | Tarhouni J.,National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia INAT
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2016

The objective of this study is to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of trihalomethanes (THMs) in a drinking water network in Tunisia and to propose treatment guidelines for improvement. The presence of THM was studied in the raw water treatment plant and during the transfer through the network. Monitoring was done over three 10-day periods, corresponding to three seasons, to search for THM species and their main precursors. The average concentration of THMs at the end of the water conveyance network during the three study periods was estimated at 95.5 μg/l. The results showed that at the end of the network, chloroform was the species predominantly formed during the warm season. Dichlorobromomethane was the compound found mostly during the cold and temperate seasons. Dibromochloromethane and bromoform only accounted for a small percentage of the total THMs during all three study periods. Better management of the treatment plant and the chlorination are proposed as keys to reduce THMs formation. © 2016 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

Dallali S.,Research Laboratory for Agricultural Production Systems and Sustainable Development | Dallali S.,National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia INAT | Llovera M.,University of Lleida | Eras Joli J.,University of Lleida | And 2 more authors.
Analytical Letters | Year: 2016

Direct analytical methods offer more rapid analysis. Herein, a method to determine fatty acids in meat was modified for the analysis of plant materials. Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaves, with numerous pharmacological properties and potential therapeutic applications, were used as a model sample to assess the method. The direct procedure was compared with two standard procedures. Rosemary leaves were collected in the National Park of Jebel Zaghouan, Tunisia from three locations. Although the relative concentrations of the acids were similar regardless of the method, a microwave-assisted procedure provided the most efficient transfer of fatty acids from the leaves. Acidic catalysis provided higher concentrations of fatty acids than basic catalysis, probably due the presence of free fatty acids in rosemary that decomposed in base. This assumption was confirmed by gas chromatography. © 2016, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Medini M.,National Bank of Genes BNG | Ferjaoui S.,Regional Filed Crops Research Center | Bahri B.,National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia INAT | Mhri W.,National Institute of Agronomy of Tunisia INAT | And 2 more authors.
Biotechnology, Agronomy and Society and Environment | Year: 2014

Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola is currently the major foliar disease of durum wheat in Tunisia. Most of the Tunisian elite cultivars show little or no resistance to this pathogen. Recently, some Tunisian landraces including 'Agili' have been identified as highly resistant to the virulent STB pathotype, 'Tun06'. In order to identify amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers associated with resistance to STB, we used bulk segregant analysis (BSA) in two F3 biparental populations derived from crosses between the resistant durum wheat accession 'Agili' and the susceptible cultivars 'Karim' and 'Khiar' and Association Mapping (AM) in a collection of 110 old durum wheat landraces. Out of the 24 EcoRI/MseI primer combinations tested, 4 were polymorphic between resistant and susceptible DNA pools. Screened on the parents and 9 to 12 progenies from each bulk, these polymorphic AFLP primer combinations revealed EcoACT/MseCTC-241, EcoACA/MseCTT-128, and EcoAGG/MseCTC-104 as specific alleles to resistant individuals suggesting their linkage to a gene for resistance to STB. Binary logistic regression analysis on the diversity panel showed that two AFLP markers out of the three identified by BSA were significantly associated with the resistance. EcoACT/MseCTC-241 was the significantly associated allele at P < 7.10-8 and was identified at a genetic distance of 1.2 cM to the resistance gene. This result indicates the efficiency of using landrace populations to detect potential markers for qualitative resistance.

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