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Koutoua A.,University Abobo Adjame | Hmouni D.,Universite Ibn Tofail | Elyacoubi H.,Universite Ibn Tofail | Moutiq R.,National Institute of Agronomical Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2015

Mature embryos were used to establish callus cultures in MS modified medium. Cell lines calli were then submitted to increasing concentrations [0, 4, 8, 12, 16 g.L-1] of NaCl. Therefore growth, water and ions contents (K+, Na+ and Cl-) were determined in both the control (unselected wild-type calli maintained in salt-free medium) and selected (tolerant and sensitive genotypes) calli. Selected salt-tolerant calli showed no growth reduction in comparison with the control when treated with 16 g.L-1 NaCl while a significant growth decrease was noted in salt-sensitive ones. Water content was significantly higher in salttolerant calli than in salt-sensitive ones. Both tolerant and sensitive calli accumulated less K+ than the control but K+ content of salt-tolerant calli remained higher than that of salt-sensitive ones. Accumulation of Na+ and Cl- was higher in salt-sensitive calli than in salt-tolerant ones with Na+ increase being the highest. The results indicated that Na+ especially but also Clexclusion play a key role in salt-tolerance in wheat calli lines. The comparison of K+/Na+ ratio allowed to classify wheat varieties Sebou, Anouar and Tarek as salt-tolerant and Marzak, Ourgh, Massa, Tomouh and Amjad as salt-sensitive ones.

Rampoldi E.A.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Hang S.,National University of Cordoba | Barriuso E.,National Institute of Agronomical Research
Soil Science Society of America Journal | Year: 2011

The environmental fate of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] was studied in six crop residue (CR) types, three from maize (Zea mays L.) (M1, M2, and M3) and three from soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] (S1, S2, and S3). Glyphosate adsorption was characterized through isotherms. The glyphosate distribution in CRs was characterized through the balance of 14C-glyphosate radioactivity among the mineralized fraction, the extractable fractions (water and NH 4OH), and the nonextractable fraction. Crop residues were characterized by elemental composition, organic C, total N, and biochemical parameters (soluble fraction, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin). Total microbial activity (TMA) was also assessed. Limited and reversible glyphosate adsorption on soybean and maize CRs was determined. The sorption coefficient Kf index range for maize CR was 1.5 to 8.3 L kg -1 and 2.6 to 7.4 L kg -1 for soybean CR. Organic C and hemicellulose partially explained adsorption variability. The addition of mineralized and nonextractable fractions of the initial 14C-glyphosate applied on the CRs averaged 56%; however, differences were detected between soybean and maize CRs. Mineralization and nonextractable residues were 30.7 ± 11 and 32.5 ± 6% (soybean CR) and 44.3 ± 12 and 17 ± 7% (maize CR), respectively. We hypothesized that glyphosate molecules could be used initially by microorganisms as a labile C source. High variability in 14C-glyphosate mineralization was observed in all crop residues, suggesting that the magnitude of the glyphosate mineralization process would be regulated by accessibility and the lability of other carbonate sources. © Soil Science Society of America.

Rampoldi E.A.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Hang S.,National University of Costa Rica | Barriuso E.,National Institute of Agronomical Research
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2014

The recognition of glyphosate [(N-phosphonomethyl) glycine] behavioral patterns can be readily examined using a pedoclimatic gradient. In the present study, glyphosate adsorption-desorption and degradation were examined under different scenarios in relationship to soil properties and soil use applications. Three sites with varied pedoclimatic conditions and two crop sequences were selected. Adsorption-desorption and glyphosate distribution in mineralized, extractable, and nonextractable fractions were assessed under laboratory conditions. Glyphosate sorption was characterized by isotherms and glyphosate degradation using the distribution of 14C-glyphosate radioactivity among mineralized fractions, two extractable fractions (in water, ER1; in NH4OH, ER2), and nonextractable fractions. Results showed sorption indices (distribution coefficient Kd and Freundlich sorption coefficient Kf: 13.4 ± 0.3-64.1 ± 0.9 L kg-1 and 16.2-60.6, respectively), and hysteresis increased among soil sites associated with decreasing soil particle size <2 μm, soil organic matter, and other soil properties associated with soil granulometry. A multiple stepwise regression analysis was applied to estimate the relationship between Kd values and soil properties. Cation exchange capacity, water field capacity, and Bray-1 P were the soil properties retained in the equation. Soils under continuous soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] (monoculture) treatment exhibited reduced glyphosate adsorption and decreased hysteresis desorption relative to soils under rotation. To our knowledge, these results are the first to demonstrate that soils with identical properties exhibited different glyphosate retention capacities based on crop sequence. We propose possible explanations for this observation. Our results suggested that characterization of the variability in soil property gradients can serve to determine glyphosate behavioral patterns, which can establish a criterion for use in reducing potential environmental risks. © American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

Jover J.,Nancy Research Center for Automatic Control | Thomas A.,Nancy Research Center for Automatic Control | Leban J.M.,National Institute of Agronomical Research | Canet D.,University of Lorraine
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2013

This paper present a new paradigm in which the wood material could become communicating. We decide to use Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance to mass marking the wood. We imagine a new method to create identification codes. At first, we examine the feasibility of this mass marking method by impregnating wood to obtain a specific marking signal. In parallel, we study the interest to abide information provided by this marker to control the supply chain. We model the supply chain (e.g. the information/decisional flow) to understand which information is important and how to use it. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Talvas J.,National Institute of Agronomical Research | Caris-Veyrat C.,National Institute of Agronomical Research | Guy L.,Hospital of Clermont Ferrand | Rambeau M.,National Institute of Agronomical Research | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Background: Prospective studies indicate that tomato consumers are protected against prostate cancer. Lycopene has been hypothesized to be responsible for tomato health benefits. Objective: Our aim was to differentiate the effects of tomato matrix from those of lycopene by using lycopene-rich red tomatoes, lycopene-free yellow tomatoes, and purified lycopene. Design: Thirty healthy men (aged 50-70 y old) were randomly assigned to 2 groups after a 2-wk washout period. In a crossover design, each group consumed yellow and red tomato paste (200 g/d, which provided 0 and 16 mg lycopene, respectively) as part of their regular diet for 1 wk separated by 2 wk of washout. Then, in a parallel design, the first group underwent supplementation with purified lycopene (16 mg/d) for 1 wk, whereas the second group received a placebo. Sera collected before and after the interventions were incubated with lymph node cancer prostate cells to measure the expression of 45 target genes. Results: Circulating lycopene concentration increased only after consumption of red tomato paste and purified lycopene. Lipid profile, antioxidant status, prostate-specific antigen, and insulin-like growth factor I were not modified by consumption of tomato pastes and lycopene. We observed significant up-regulation of IGFBP-3 and Bax:Bcl-2 ratio and down-regulation of cyclin-D1, p53, and Nrf-2 after cell incubation with sera from men who consumed red tomato paste when compared with sera collected after the first washout period, with intermediate values for yellow tomato paste consumption. Cell incubation with sera from men who consumed purified lycopene led to significant up-regulation of IGFBP-3, c-fos, and uPAR compared with sera collected after placebo consumption. Conclusion: Dietary lycopene can affect gene expression whether or not it is included in its food matrix. This trial was registered by the French Health Ministry at http://www.sante-sports.gouv.fr as 2006-A00396-45. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition.

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