National Institute of Agronomical Research

Rabat, Morocco

National Institute of Agronomical Research

Rabat, Morocco
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Talvas J.,National Institute of Agronomical Research | Caris-Veyrat C.,National Institute of Agronomical Research | Guy L.,Hospital of Clermont Ferrand | Rambeau M.,National Institute of Agronomical Research | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Background: Prospective studies indicate that tomato consumers are protected against prostate cancer. Lycopene has been hypothesized to be responsible for tomato health benefits. Objective: Our aim was to differentiate the effects of tomato matrix from those of lycopene by using lycopene-rich red tomatoes, lycopene-free yellow tomatoes, and purified lycopene. Design: Thirty healthy men (aged 50-70 y old) were randomly assigned to 2 groups after a 2-wk washout period. In a crossover design, each group consumed yellow and red tomato paste (200 g/d, which provided 0 and 16 mg lycopene, respectively) as part of their regular diet for 1 wk separated by 2 wk of washout. Then, in a parallel design, the first group underwent supplementation with purified lycopene (16 mg/d) for 1 wk, whereas the second group received a placebo. Sera collected before and after the interventions were incubated with lymph node cancer prostate cells to measure the expression of 45 target genes. Results: Circulating lycopene concentration increased only after consumption of red tomato paste and purified lycopene. Lipid profile, antioxidant status, prostate-specific antigen, and insulin-like growth factor I were not modified by consumption of tomato pastes and lycopene. We observed significant up-regulation of IGFBP-3 and Bax:Bcl-2 ratio and down-regulation of cyclin-D1, p53, and Nrf-2 after cell incubation with sera from men who consumed red tomato paste when compared with sera collected after the first washout period, with intermediate values for yellow tomato paste consumption. Cell incubation with sera from men who consumed purified lycopene led to significant up-regulation of IGFBP-3, c-fos, and uPAR compared with sera collected after placebo consumption. Conclusion: Dietary lycopene can affect gene expression whether or not it is included in its food matrix. This trial was registered by the French Health Ministry at http://www.sante-sports.gouv.fr as 2006-A00396-45. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition.


Jover J.,Nancy Research Center for Automatic Control | Thomas A.,Nancy Research Center for Automatic Control | Leban J.M.,National Institute of Agronomical Research | Canet D.,University of Lorraine
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2013

This paper present a new paradigm in which the wood material could become communicating. We decide to use Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance to mass marking the wood. We imagine a new method to create identification codes. At first, we examine the feasibility of this mass marking method by impregnating wood to obtain a specific marking signal. In parallel, we study the interest to abide information provided by this marker to control the supply chain. We model the supply chain (e.g. the information/decisional flow) to understand which information is important and how to use it. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.


Rampoldi E.A.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Hang S.,National University of Cordoba | Barriuso E.,National Institute of Agronomical Research
Soil Science Society of America Journal | Year: 2011

The environmental fate of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] was studied in six crop residue (CR) types, three from maize (Zea mays L.) (M1, M2, and M3) and three from soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] (S1, S2, and S3). Glyphosate adsorption was characterized through isotherms. The glyphosate distribution in CRs was characterized through the balance of 14C-glyphosate radioactivity among the mineralized fraction, the extractable fractions (water and NH 4OH), and the nonextractable fraction. Crop residues were characterized by elemental composition, organic C, total N, and biochemical parameters (soluble fraction, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin). Total microbial activity (TMA) was also assessed. Limited and reversible glyphosate adsorption on soybean and maize CRs was determined. The sorption coefficient Kf index range for maize CR was 1.5 to 8.3 L kg -1 and 2.6 to 7.4 L kg -1 for soybean CR. Organic C and hemicellulose partially explained adsorption variability. The addition of mineralized and nonextractable fractions of the initial 14C-glyphosate applied on the CRs averaged 56%; however, differences were detected between soybean and maize CRs. Mineralization and nonextractable residues were 30.7 ± 11 and 32.5 ± 6% (soybean CR) and 44.3 ± 12 and 17 ± 7% (maize CR), respectively. We hypothesized that glyphosate molecules could be used initially by microorganisms as a labile C source. High variability in 14C-glyphosate mineralization was observed in all crop residues, suggesting that the magnitude of the glyphosate mineralization process would be regulated by accessibility and the lability of other carbonate sources. © Soil Science Society of America.


Hang S.,National University of Cordoba | Mercuri P.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Diaz-Zorita M.,CONICET | Havrylenko S.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Barriuso E.,National Institute of Agronomical Research
Crop Protection | Year: 2011

Microflora adaptation to atrazine (6-chloro-N 2-ethyl-N 4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) mineralization due to its frequent use on the same soil has been clearly demonstrated. Studies show accelerated herbicide mineralization with mineralization percentages reaching up to 60% of the applied atrazine in a few days, which results in decreased weed control efficiency. Frequently, atrazine doses are increased to circumvent low efficiency, although this solution does not solve accelerated atrazine mineralization. The identification of soils with accelerated atrazine mineralization to guide selection of adequate management strategies and achieve good atrazine performance in adapted soils is critical. The present research assessed accelerated atrazine mineralization recognition on the basis of previous years maize (Zea mays L.) cropping as an indicator of atrazine use identified using satellite images. Three years of crop sequences were monitored by visual interpretation of Landsat satellite images. Bands 3, 4, and 5 were evaluated and corresponded, respectively, to red, near infrared, and mid-infrared. Vegetation was distinguished by selecting the R:4 G:5 B:3 color composition. Prior to assessment, atrazine behavior was evaluated in soils with high (S H) and low (S L) atrazine mineralization capacity. 14C-ring-labeled atrazine distribution between extractable, non-extractable, and mineralized soil culture fractions was subject to monitoring. Atrazine mineralization was determined by soil laboratory incubation. These included some soils of known past use and others with history predicted by satellite imagery. Topsoil (0-10 cm) samples were extracted according to two soil sampling strategies: Type A sampling (designated site A) consisted of 25 topsoil samples with known history, and type B sampling (designated site B) comprised 20 topsoil samples from history inferred via satellite imagery.Atrazine mineralization was monitored for 23 days under laboratory conditions. Soil 14C applied mineralization ranged from 0.3-73.0% and 0.2-30.0% in sites A and B, respectively. These broad ranges were closely related to maize presence/absence in the crop rotation at both sites. Following three straight growing seasons of maize, atrazine mineralization capacity reached a plateau in site A soils, with similar results observed in site B soils. This pattern suggests that satellite image information will be of utility to soil managers in selecting strategies to improve atrazine efficiency, including simultaneous fertilization, post-emergence atrazine applications, and choice of maize hybrids based on canopy architecture and weed competitiveness. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Rampoldi E.A.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Hang S.,National University of Costa Rica | Barriuso E.,National Institute of Agronomical Research
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2014

The recognition of glyphosate [(N-phosphonomethyl) glycine] behavioral patterns can be readily examined using a pedoclimatic gradient. In the present study, glyphosate adsorption-desorption and degradation were examined under different scenarios in relationship to soil properties and soil use applications. Three sites with varied pedoclimatic conditions and two crop sequences were selected. Adsorption-desorption and glyphosate distribution in mineralized, extractable, and nonextractable fractions were assessed under laboratory conditions. Glyphosate sorption was characterized by isotherms and glyphosate degradation using the distribution of 14C-glyphosate radioactivity among mineralized fractions, two extractable fractions (in water, ER1; in NH4OH, ER2), and nonextractable fractions. Results showed sorption indices (distribution coefficient Kd and Freundlich sorption coefficient Kf: 13.4 ± 0.3-64.1 ± 0.9 L kg-1 and 16.2-60.6, respectively), and hysteresis increased among soil sites associated with decreasing soil particle size <2 μm, soil organic matter, and other soil properties associated with soil granulometry. A multiple stepwise regression analysis was applied to estimate the relationship between Kd values and soil properties. Cation exchange capacity, water field capacity, and Bray-1 P were the soil properties retained in the equation. Soils under continuous soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] (monoculture) treatment exhibited reduced glyphosate adsorption and decreased hysteresis desorption relative to soils under rotation. To our knowledge, these results are the first to demonstrate that soils with identical properties exhibited different glyphosate retention capacities based on crop sequence. We propose possible explanations for this observation. Our results suggested that characterization of the variability in soil property gradients can serve to determine glyphosate behavioral patterns, which can establish a criterion for use in reducing potential environmental risks. © American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.


Gauchi J.-P.,National Institute of Agronomical Research | Vila J.-P.,National Institute of Agronomical Research | Coroller L.,University of Western Brittany
Communications in Statistics: Simulation and Computation | Year: 2010

This article is concerned with the proposal of a new prediction interval and band for the nonlinear regression model. The construction principle of this interval and band is based on an exact (the meaning of the term "exact" will be given later) confidence region for parameters of the nonlinear regression model. This region, fully described in Vila and Gauchi (2007), provides a rigorous justification for the new prediction interval and band that we propose. This new band is then compared to the classical bands (which are asymptotic and thus approximate for small n), and also to the band based on the bootstrap resampling method. The comparison of these bands is undertaken with simulated and real data from predictive modeling in food science. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Koutoua A.,University Abobo Adjame | Hmouni D.,Université Ibn Tofail | Elyacoubi H.,Université Ibn Tofail | Moutiq R.,National Institute of Agronomical Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2015

Mature embryos were used to establish callus cultures in MS modified medium. Cell lines calli were then submitted to increasing concentrations [0, 4, 8, 12, 16 g.L-1] of NaCl. Therefore growth, water and ions contents (K+, Na+ and Cl-) were determined in both the control (unselected wild-type calli maintained in salt-free medium) and selected (tolerant and sensitive genotypes) calli. Selected salt-tolerant calli showed no growth reduction in comparison with the control when treated with 16 g.L-1 NaCl while a significant growth decrease was noted in salt-sensitive ones. Water content was significantly higher in salttolerant calli than in salt-sensitive ones. Both tolerant and sensitive calli accumulated less K+ than the control but K+ content of salt-tolerant calli remained higher than that of salt-sensitive ones. Accumulation of Na+ and Cl- was higher in salt-sensitive calli than in salt-tolerant ones with Na+ increase being the highest. The results indicated that Na+ especially but also Clexclusion play a key role in salt-tolerance in wheat calli lines. The comparison of K+/Na+ ratio allowed to classify wheat varieties Sebou, Anouar and Tarek as salt-tolerant and Marzak, Ourgh, Massa, Tomouh and Amjad as salt-sensitive ones.


PubMed | Labgene Scientific Instruments, Université Ibn Tofail, Technical Unit UATRS and National Institute of Agronomical Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food technology and biotechnology | Year: 2016

Drought is the single largest abiotic stress factor leading to reduced crop yields. The identification of differentially expressed genes and the understanding of their functions in environmentally stressful conditions are essential to improve drought tolerance. Transcriptomics is a powerful approach for the global analysis of molecular mechanisms under abiotic stress. To identify genes that are important for drought tolerance, we analyzed mRNA populations from untreated and drought-stressed leaves of


Amallah L.,Mohammed V University | Taghouti M.,National Institute of Agronomical Research | Rhrib K.,National Institute of Agronomical Research | Gaboun F.,National Institute of Agronomical Research | Hassikou R.,Mohammed V University
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2015

Durum wheat landraces are still cultivated to take advantage of their excellent grain and straw quality, adaptation to abiotic stresses, and extremely wide variety of uses. The safeguarding and rehabilitation of genetic inheritance requires genetic characterization and evaluation. In this study, forty durum wheat landraces originating from Mediterranean countries were evaluated according to agro-morphological and technological properties. We show that the germplasm was highly variable. The mean yellow pigment and protein content was higher in landraces (15.58%; 7.32 ppm) than in the Moroccan cultivars used as controls (14.6%; 5.48 ppm). In addition, principal component analysis identified five groups showing variable agronomic and qualitative characteristics that might be useful in the rational design of breeding programs.


PubMed | National Institute of Agronomical Research
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: The American journal of clinical nutrition | Year: 2010

Prospective studies indicate that tomato consumers are protected against prostate cancer. Lycopene has been hypothesized to be responsible for tomato health benefits.Our aim was to differentiate the effects of tomato matrix from those of lycopene by using lycopene-rich red tomatoes, lycopene-free yellow tomatoes, and purified lycopene.Thirty healthy men (aged 50-70 y old) were randomly assigned to 2 groups after a 2-wk washout period. In a crossover design, each group consumed yellow and red tomato paste (200 g/d, which provided 0 and 16 mg lycopene, respectively) as part of their regular diet for 1 wk separated by 2 wk of washout. Then, in a parallel design, the first group underwent supplementation with purified lycopene (16 mg/d) for 1 wk, whereas the second group received a placebo. Sera collected before and after the interventions were incubated with lymph node cancer prostate cells to measure the expression of 45 target genes.Circulating lycopene concentration increased only after consumption of red tomato paste and purified lycopene. Lipid profile, antioxidant status, prostate-specific antigen, and insulin-like growth factor I were not modified by consumption of tomato pastes and lycopene. We observed significant up-regulation of IGFBP-3 and Bax:Bcl-2 ratio and down-regulation of cyclin-D1, p53, and Nrf-2 after cell incubation with sera from men who consumed red tomato paste when compared with sera collected after the first washout period, with intermediate values for yellow tomato paste consumption. Cell incubation with sera from men who consumed purified lycopene led to significant up-regulation of IGFBP-3, c-fos, and uPAR compared with sera collected after placebo consumption.Dietary lycopene can affect gene expression whether or not it is included in its food matrix. This trial was registered by the French Health Ministry at http://www.sante-sports.gouv.fr as 2006-A00396-45.

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