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Ismail A.,National Water Research Institute | Mancini E.,University of Salerno | De Martino L.,University of Salerno | Hamrouni L.,National Water Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Chemistry and Biodiversity | Year: 2014

The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of leaves, stems, and female cones of Cupressus arizonica Greene, grown in Tunisia, was studied by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Altogether, 62 compounds were identified, 62 in the leaf oil, 19 in the cone oil, and 24 in the stem oil. The cone and stem oils were mainly composed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (96.6 and 85.2%, resp.). In the leaf oil, the total sesquiterpene fraction constituted 36.1% and that of the monoterpene hydrocarbons 33.8% of the total oil composition. The three oils were evaluated for their in vitro herbicidal activity by determining their influence on the germination and the shoot and root growth of the four weed species Sinapis arvensis L., Lolium rigidum Gaudin, Trifolium campestre Schreb., and Phalaris canariensis L. At the highest doses tested (0.8 and 1.0 mg/ml), the leaf essential oil inhibited either totally or almost completely the seed germination and the shoot and root growth of S. arvensis and T. campestre. The oils were also tested for their antifungal activity; however, their effects on the fungal growth were statistically not significant. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich. Source


Henane I.,Higher Institute of Management | Henane I.,Intelligent Information Engineering Laboratory | Said L.B.,Higher Institute of Management | Said L.B.,Intelligent Information Engineering Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2010

Pastoral systems are considered as complex systems, given the number of entities and the multitude of interactions and levels of granularity. To conduct a study of such system taking into account the interactions and their results, analytical approaches are not adequate. In this paper, we present an agent-based model of the animal behavior in the pastoral system taking into account the selective food aspect. This model has been validated using a multi-agent based simulation implemented on the simulation platform Cormas. The obtained results reflect the importance of this aspect in the animal behavior and its effects on vegetation cover. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Ben Jemaa S.,National Institute of Agronomic Research of Tunisia | Boussaha M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Boussaha M.,Agro ParisTech | Ben Mehdi M.,Livestock and Pasture Office | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015

Background: Tunisian local cattle populations are at risk of extinction as they were massively crossed with imported breeds. Preservation of indigenous livestock populations is important because each of them comprises a unique set of genes resulting from a local environment-driven selection that occurred over hundreds of years. The diversity and genetic structure of Tunisian local cattle populations are poorly understood. However, such information is crucial to the conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources. In addition, comparing the genomic structure of population sets from different parts of the world could help yield insight into their origin and history. In the present study, we provide a detailed assessment of the population structure of the three Tunisian local cattle populations using various methods, and we highlight their origin and history by investigating approximately ~38,000 SNPs in a broad panel of 878 individuals from 37 worldwide cattle breeds representative of African, European and indicine populations. Results: Our study revealed a low level of divergence and high genetic diversity in Tunisian local cattle reflecting low levels of genetic drift. A Comparison with the worldwide cattle panel pinpointed the admixed origin of the genome of the three Tunisian populations with the two main European and African ancestries. Our results were in agreement with previous historical and archaeological reports about the past gene flow that existed between North African and South European breeds, in particular with Iberian cattle. We also detected a low-level indicine introgression in the three Tunisian populations and we inferred that indicine ancestry was inherited via African ancestors. Conclusions: Our results represent the first study providing genetic evidence about the origin and history of Tunisian local cattle. The information provided by the fine-scale genetic characterization of our study will enhance the establishment of a national conservation strategy for these populations. These results may enable the identification of genetic variants involved in adaptation to harsh environmental conditions. © 2015 Ben Jemaa et al. Source


Hamrouni L.,University of Carthage | Hanana M.,Center de Biotechnologie de la Technopole de Borj-Cedria | Amri I.,University of Carthage | Romane A.E.,Cadi | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2014

The chemical composition, phytotoxic and antifungal activities of the essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the needles of Tunisian Aleppo pine harvested from different provenances were evaluated. The chemical composition analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed variability among provenances displaying interesting chemotypes, (Z)-caryophyllene (16.16-28.9%), β-myrcene (8.5-22.9%), α-pinene (11.7-13.14%), β-pinene (3.13-11.8%), bicyclogermacrene (5.2-12.37%), α-terpinolene (8.11-11.01%) and α-humulene (2.85-5.2%), which were the main components in the oil. Antifungal ability of Aleppo pine oils was tested by disc agar diffusion against 10 phytopathogenic fungi. Weak antifungal activity was observed for the essential oils isolated. Furthermore, in contrast, the herbicidal activity investigated for three common weeds in Tunisian cereal crops was very strong and seed germination was inhibited at a low concentration and their herbicidal effects were higher than those of a commercial herbicide. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source


Abbes Z.,National Institute of Agronomic Research of Tunisia | El Abed N.,Tunisian National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology | Amri M.,University of Carthage | Kharrat M.,National Institute of Agronomic Research of Tunisia | Ben Hadj Ahmed S.,Tunisian National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2014

The antioxidant activity of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of two parasitic plants Orobanche crenata and Orobanche foetida collected from faba bean fields was investigated with 2 complementary test systems, DPPH (2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activities. The O. crenata methanol extract showed the highest level of DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activities, with IC50 values of 2.76 μg/ml and 7.96 μg/ml respectively. The amount of total polyphenol and tannins varied in the different plant extracts and ranged from 3.02 to 19.99 mg GAE/g DW for polyphenol contents and from 0.09 to 0.32 mg EC/g DW for tannins contents. Antimicrobial activity was investigated with the disc diffusion method. The methanol extract of O. foetida showed activity against all tested bacterial strains, except S. aureus ATCC 6538, by forming clear inhibition zones with diameters between 12 and 30 mm whereas methanol extracts of O. crenata inhibits only L. monocytogenes and S. enteredis ATCC 502 with an inhibition zone of 10 and 25 mm respectively. Aqueous extracts of the two Orobanche species were not active against any of these bacterial isolates. These results implied that these two Orobanche species collected from infested faba bean fields might be potential resources of antioxidant and antibacterial activities and can be used in human nutrition and some industrial and pharmaceutical products. Source

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