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Chaar J.E.,National Institute of Agricultural Technology
Acta Agronomica | Year: 2015

Spring frosts are one of main crop constraints for temperate fruit trees. Within a species exists variability in damage caused by subzero temperatures on flower organs during breaking winter rest. In five peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] and one nectarine cultivars, field frost damage was assessed, also recording full bloom date and bloom density. Additionally, mean lethal temperature (LT50) of flower buds in the open flower state was determined through laboratory controlled thermal declines. Peach cultivars Maria Bianca and Summer Pearl had higher density of healthy flowers per cm of shoot, after field subzero temperatures. Field frost resistance was related mainly with high bloom density, combined, in some cases, with late bloom. Late bloom did not result in a resistance feature itself. Therefore, to select peach cultivars with less damage risk by subzero temperatures, it is important to consider more than one variable related with reproductive organs. © 2015, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. All rights reserved.


Lana M.A.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | Eulenstein F.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | Schlindwein S.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Guevara E.,National Institute of Agricultural Technology | And 5 more authors.
Regional Environmental Change | Year: 2015

Understanding climate change and its impacts on crops is crucial to determine adaptation strategies. Simulations of climate change impacts on agricultural systems are often run for individual sites. Nevertheless, the scaling up of crop model results can bring a more complete picture, providing better inputs for the decision-making process. The objective of this paper was to present a procedure to assess the regional impacts of climate scenarios on maize production, as well as the effect of crop cultivars and planting dates as an adaptation strategy. The focus region is Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The identification of agricultural areas cultivated with annual crops was done for the whole state, followed by the coupling of soil and weather information necessary for the crop modeling procedure (using crop model and regional circulation models). The impact on maize yields, so as the effect of adaptation strategies, was calculated for the 2012–2040 period assuming different maize cultivars and planting dates. Results showed that the exclusion of non-agricultural areas allowed the crop model to correctly simulate local and regional production. Simulations run without adaptation strategies for the 2012–2040 period showed reductions of 11.5–13.5 % in total maize production, depending on the cultivar. By using the best cultivar for each agricultural area, total state production was increased by 6 %; when using both adaptation strategies—cultivar and best planting date—total production increased by 15 %. This analysis showed that cultivar and planting date are feasible adaptation strategies to mitigate deleterious effects of climate scenarios, and crop models can be successfully used for regional assessments. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Calvo G.,National Institute of Agricultural Technology | Kupferman E.,Washington State University
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Regulations governing the use of chemicals to control diseases and disorders of apples and pears in storage are becoming increasingly stringent, especially in European Union (EU) countries. The European Commission (EC) is currently conducting a review of the active ingredients (AI) of chemicals used in food production under EC Council Directive 91/414. DPA is under a review process and research is being conducting to address the concerns raised in the review. Ethoxyquin is also excluded from the list of AI in Annex I. Commercial supporters have recently come forward so this AI is also now under review. In light of the potential change in regulations, and the concern of fruit packers who market in EU, a survey of international researchers, suppliers and packers was conducted. The aim was to assess the situation in each fruit growing region, to determine which alternatives to antioxidants are being evaluated, gauge the perception about the acceptability of fruit treated with 1-methlycyclopropene (1-MCP) and learn how much packers of different regions are concerned about scald control. The respondents concerned about potential ban on antioxidants are from the countries that export to EU, especially from pear producing regions. Of all the alternatives mentioned by researchers consulted, the ones related to storage under controlled atmosphere (ultra-low oxygen, initial low oxygen stress, and dynamic controlled atmosphere) and 1-MCP are considered as the only sustainable technology to replace DPA. Other alternatives mentioned were ethylene removal, resistant cultivars, inhibition of phospholipase D and combined strategies. Regarding the use of 1-MCP, researchers report that it is a good alternative to current chemicals for control storage scald in apples. Although 1-MCP application to pears provides control of storage scald as well as the reduction in senescent scald, ripening may be inhibited after storage. Researchers are attempting to induce ripening in a number of ways including simultaneous application of 1-MCP and ethylene, conditioning through high temperatures, among others.


Gardebroek C.,Wageningen University | Chavez M.D.,National Institute of Agricultural Technology | Lansink A.O.,National University of Salta | Lansink A.O.,Wageningen University
Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2010

This paper compares the production technology and production risk of organic and conventional arable farms in the Netherlands. Just-Pope production functions that explicitly account for output variability are estimated using panel data of Dutch organic and conventional farms. Prior investigation of the data indicates that within variation of output is significantly higher for organic farms, indicating that organic farms face more output variation than conventional farms. The estimation results indicate that in both types of farms, unobserved farm-specific factors like management skills and soil quality are important in explaining output variability and production risk. The results further indicate that land has the highest elasticity of production for both farm types. Labour and other variable inputs have significant production elasticities in the case of conventional farms and other variable inputs in the case of organic farms. Manure and fertilisers are risk-increasing inputs on organic farms and risk-reducing inputs on conventional farms. Other variable inputs and labour are risk increasing on both farm types; capital and land are risk-reducing inputs. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 The Agricultural Economics Society.


Scheneiter J.O.,National Institute of Agricultural Technology | Scheneiter J.O.,University of Buenos Aires | Camarasa J.,National Institute of Agricultural Technology | Camarasa J.,University of Buenos Aires | And 2 more authors.
Grass and Forage Science | Year: 2016

The aim of this work was to investigate whether neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and dry-matter digestibility (DMD) are related to tall fescue accumulated forage mass (AFM) and to assess the relevance of environmental variables to predict the nutritive value of tall fescue swards. Three experiments were carried out in Pergamino, Argentina. To obtain swards with different amounts of AFM, two N levels and two irrigation regimes were applied in the spring after sowing and the autumn of the next year. In spring and autumn, AFM, NDF and DMD were measured every 10-12 days. In spring, NDF increased from 503 to 604 g kg-1, DMD decreased from 684 to 558 g kg-1 and AFM increased from 0·64 to 2·82 t DM ha-1. In autumn, NDF decreased from 543 to 442 g kg-1, DMD increased from 591 to 681 g kg-1 and AFM increased from 0·35 to 1·10 t DM ha-1. The results show that the nutritive value of tall fescue through the year is not related to the accumulation of dry matter of the sward. Nutritive value is determined by the reproductive stage in late spring and early summer, the fate of photosynthates at different times of the year and the synthesis of non-digestible compounds. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Portela J.A.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Sidoti B.,National Institute of Agricultural Technology | Reybet G.,National University of Comahue | Bellaccomo C.,National Institute of Agricultural Technology | Astorquizaga R.,National Institute of Agricultural Technology
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Since 1989, the Garlic Project of INTA (The National Institute of Agricultural Technology, Argentina) has obtained an important number of clonal cultivars by means of clonal selection. Those high yielding and top quality cultivars allow extending the technological alternatives for the industry. However, all those clones have been obtained in a same location (La Consulta, Mendoza; 33.70°S; 69.7°W, 950 m a.s.l.) and little is known about their stability of response in environments outside the main producing region. The aim of this work was to study yield stability of clonal cultivars from different ecophysiological groups (EG), all selected at 33.70°S, in promising locations for garlic production around northern Patagonia. Throughout 2005-2008 ten clones were proven in four sites. Each year the seed was provided from the site of origin of the clones (Experiment Station La Consulta). Cultivars studied were 'Morado INTA' (EG-II); 'Lican INTA', 'Norteño INTA', 'Nieve INTA', 'Perla INTA' and 'Unión' (EG-III); 'Gostoso INTA', 'Fuego INTA' and 'Sureño INTA' (EG-IVa); 'Castaño INTA' (EG-IVb). Sites for the survey were Cinco Saltos (Río Negro; 38.82°S; 68.7°W, 290 m a.s.l.), Hilario Ascasubi (Buenos Aires; 39.38°S 62.62°W, 15 m a.s.l.), Viedma (Río Negro; 40.78°S; 63.5°W, 9 m a.s.l.) and Trevelin (Chubut; 43.12°S; 71.52°W, 360 m a.s.l.). Bulb weight (g per plant) was analyzed by AMMI and SREG models through the software InfoGen. Although Morado INTA belongs to the EG-II (subtropical climate adaptation) it showed higher yields among clones proven in northern Patagonia (62.73 g on average), besides highly unstable. Clones of EG-III produced an intermediate and more stable response (bulb mean weight about 50 g). 'Gostoso INTA' gave the worst yield across all locations. The four sites in this study, although contrasting in latitudes and seasonal temperatures, would be considered belonging to a same mega-environment.


Bonino N.,National Institute of Agricultural Technology | Cossios D.,University of Montréal | Menegheti J.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Folia Zoologica | Year: 2010

We provide an updated distribution and dispersal rate of the European hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778) introduced in South America, with georeferenced record localities. According to our results the current geographic distribution of the European hare, would cover practically all of Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, southeastern Peru, southwestern Bolivia, southeastern Paraguay, and central part of southern Brazil. During the process of invading new areas, the hare has occupied very dissimilar environments, from the bushy steppes and Andean deserts of Bolivia and Peru to the dry and humid forests and wooded savannahs of Paraguay and Brazil. This would explain the variation observed in the dispersal rates that varied between 10 and 37 km/year.


Hartwell B.W.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Iniguez L.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Mueller J.,National Institute of Agricultural Technology | Wurzinger M.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Knaus W.F.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2010

Intensive lamb fattening systems are evolving in developing Middle Eastern countries due to high demand for lambs at favorable prices; however, little is known about their characteristics and constraints. A survey was conducted in Syria involving 241 farmers to characterize the fattening production systems and main constraints, with emphasis on feeding, management, labor, and marketing. Most farmers (90%) considered the income from fattening to be from medium to high, and 57% expressed that lamb fattening along with alternative income sources compose the family's livelihood strategies. Fattening systems offer employment to family members. Market price was the main decision factor to buy and sell lambs, but this was only part of various marketing aspects. Male lambs usually bought at markets at the mean age of 4 months (mean weight of 31 kg) are sold after fattening at a 50-60 kg weight range. The average yearly fattening cycle was 2.7 batches, and the average number of lambs per batch was 232.For 65% (n=241) of the farmers the major constraint to fattening was feeding cost, and for about a half of farmers (51%, n=241), disease outbreaks and prices for veterinarian services constituted the second important constraint. Research on least-cost fattening diets and curbing disease problems to increase farmer's income margins is needed. It is expected that due to existing commonalities, the information emerging from this study regarding major constraints to Awassi lamb fattening systems could be useful for an across-synthesis on Awassi fattening production in the region. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Mac Donagh P.,National University of Misiones | Rivero L.,National University of Misiones | Garibaldi J.,National University of Misiones | Alvez M.,National University of Misiones | And 6 more authors.
Scientia Forestalis/Forest Sciences | Year: 2010

Harvesting tropical forests produce important impacts, especially in soil compaction. Effects of selective harvesting methods on soil compaction were compared in a natural subtropical forest in the Guarani preservation area, Misiones state, Argentine. An ordinary commercial harvesting method (CH) used by the logging contractors in the region and reduced impact logging method (RIL) with selection of harvestable trees and limitation of the skidding trials and landings were applied with reference to terrain condition. Area of skid trails; intensities of traffic related to extent of soil compaction were compared with volume of harvested trees and terrain condition. It was found that the RIL treatment concentrates the logs volume and logs weight, with a diminution of the total load over the soil, and the traffic intensity, especially on primary roads. The increase of the traffic intensities resulted in higher soil compaction at deepest depth. Planned logging operations through the RIL method, avoid Significant soil compaction through the reduction of the total load over the soil.


PubMed | National Institute of Agricultural Technology
Type: Case Reports | Journal: The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne | Year: 2010

This study reports 3 cases of spontaneous papillomavirus infection in 1-week-old calves. Thickening of the omasum and abomasum wall, with acute inflammation, necrosis, ulceration, and neoplastic changes were seen in 1 calf. In the other 2, small papillomas were observed in the omasal mucosa, exhibiting proliferation of the parakeratinized epithelium. Papillomavirus antigens were detected by immunohistochemistry and virus-like particles were seen through electron microscopy.

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