National Institute of Agricultural Science

Wanju, South Korea

National Institute of Agricultural Science

Wanju, South Korea

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Cho Y.-H.,National Institute of Agricultural Science | Farhoudi R.,Islamic Azad University at Shoshtar | Farooq M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Lee D.-J.,Dankook University
Natural Product Research | Year: 2017

Increase in the average life span and interest in correlation between food and human health have led to researches to find and utilise the functional materials in rice. Octacosanol in rice grain is well known for its potential benefit. This study was conducted to evaluate the Korean rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes and landraces for octacosanol contents and antioxidant activity. Octacosanol contents in 223 cultivars of Korean rice ranged from 0.78 to 6.06 mg 100 g−1. Thirteen genotypes and landraces had high contents of octacosanol (4 mg 100 g−1). The antioxidant activity in Korean rice ranged from 12 to 96%. Among the tested genotypes and landraces, red-coloured rice accessions had more than 90% antioxidant activity. Genotypes with high level of octacosanol and antioxidant activity may be useful for rice breeders to develop functional varieties and food processing as nutraceutical materials. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Nanjo Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Maruyama K.,Japan International Research Center for Agricultural science | Yasue H.,National Institute of Agricultural science | Yasue H.,Tsukuba GeneTechnology Laboratories Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

To understand the transcriptional responses to flooding stress in roots including hypocotyl of soybean seedlings, genome-wide changes in gene expression were analyzed using a soybean microarray chip containing 42,034 60-mer oligonucleotide probes. More than 6,000 of flooding-responsive genes in the roots including hypocotyl of soybean seedlings were identified. The transcriptional analysis showed that genes related to photosynthesis, glycolysis, Ser-Gly-Cys group amino acid synthesis, regulation of transcription, ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation and cell death were significantly up-regulated by flooding. Meanwhile, genes related to cell wall synthesis, secondary metabolism, metabolite transport, cell organization, chromatin structure synthesis, and degradation of aspartate family amino acid were significantly down-regulated. Comparison of the responses with other plants showed that genes encoding pyrophosphate dependent phosphofructokinase were down-regulated in flooded soybean seedlings, however, those in tolerant plants were up-regulated. Additionally, genes related to RNA processing and initiation of protein synthesis were not up-regulated in soybean, however, those in tolerant plants were up-regulated. Furthermore, we found that flooding-specific up-regulation of genes encoding small proteins which might have roles in acclimation to flooding. These results suggest that functional disorder of acclimative responses to flooding through transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations is involved in occurring flooding injury to soybean seedlings. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

PubMed | University of Seoul, University of South Australia, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology and National Institute of Agricultural science
Type: | Journal: Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology | Year: 2016

The urban agricultural (UA) environment near active roadways can be degraded by traffic-related particles (i.e., exhaust gases and road dust), which may contain heavy metals. The current study investigated changes in heavy-metal [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)] concentrations in soils located near highly trafficked roads in Korea and the subsequent uptake of these metals by Chinese cabbage. Heavy-metal plant concentrations were determined in both washed and unwashed plant leaves to determine whether foliar deposition played any role in plant metal uptake. Soil concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were all lower than the Korean standard soil limits and showed no significant influence from road traffic. In contrast, both Ni and Cr concentrations in soils collected within 10m of the road were 4 and 5 times greater, respectively, than those in soils collected 70m from the road. Heavy-metal concentrations in unwashed Chinese cabbage leaf collected at 5m from the road were consistently greater than those of washed leaf samples, thus indicating the deposition of traffic-related particles on the plant surface. With the exception of Cu, all heavy-metal concentration in washed plant samples collected at 5m also showed greater accumulation compared with samples collected further away. This was mainly attributed to increased total soil heavy-metal concentrations and increased metal phytoavailability induced by decreases in soil pH near the road. However, overall heavy-metal soil concentrations were well lower than the allowable concentrations, and the levels observed in plants collected in this study were considered not to currently pose a significant risk to human health. However, some traffic-related heavy metals, in particular Cr and Ni, were being accumulated in the roadside UA environment, which may warrant some caution regarding the environment and/or health issues in the future.

Haque M.M.,Gyeongsang National University | Kim G.W.,Gyeongsang National University | Kim P.J.,Gyeongsang National University | Kim S.Y.,National Institute of Agricultural Science
Field Crops Research | Year: 2016

Midseason drainage is regarded as a key practice to suppress methane (CH4) emission from paddy soil during rice cultivation, but it can increase carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. However, the influences of midseason drainage practice on the net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) of rice cropping systems is not well documented in the East monsoon region. In this field study, the effect of a 30-day midseason drainage practice from the 28th day after transplanting (DAT) to the 57th DAT on the three major greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and yield properties were compared with those of a continuous flooding system during rice cultivation in 2011 and 2012. The impact of midseason drainage on changing three GHG emissions was compared using the GWP value and GHG intensity (GHGI). Midseason drainage significantly reduced the net GWP scale by 46-50% of the continuous flooding, mainly due to 50-53% reduction of seasonal CH4 fluxes. Midseason drainage significantly increased N2O flux by 20-37% over the conventional flooding, but the influence of N2O emission increase on the net GWP scale was negligible. Midseason drainage significantly decreased soil C sequestration capacity by around 60% of continuous flooding, and then increased net GWP by 0.25-0.32Mg CO2-eq.ha-1 during rice cultivation. There was no significant difference of rice yield between two irrigation systems, and then midseason drainage can reduce GHGI by 50-56% of the continuous flooding. In conclusion, the midseason drainage practice during rice cultivation could be very useful soil management strategy to reduce GHG emission impact from lowland rice fields without impacting rice productivity. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Na Y.-E.,National Institute of Agricultural science | Jung J.W.,Incheon National University | Kwon H.W.,Incheon National University
Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology | Year: 2016

Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels respond to diverse stimuli and function as primary regulators of sensory information such as olfaction and auditory. TRP proteins are activated by several chemicals and secondary messengers to modulate communications between cell to cell as well as to recognize some environmental changes. Here we report on the identification and localization of the Aedes aegypti homolog of the TRPV channel proteins that is conserved to other insect species based on comparison of amino acids sequences similarities. Transcripts of two TRPV proteins homologous to Drosophila TRPV proteins (Nan and Iav) were ubiquitously expressed in the whole tissues such as antennae, maxillary palps, proboscis, legs, and body of the mosquito. Indeed, TRPV channel family members were localized in sensilla chaetica and sensilla basiconica on the antennae as well as ciliary segment of Johnston's organs. Taken together, we infer that TRPV channels of Aedes aegypti may function as both a sound sensor involved in detection of sound signals and as a chemical sensor responding attractants or repellent compounds allowing them to respond to the appearance of predators or other environmental chemical cues at a distance with behaviors crucial for survival. © 2016 .

Lee J.Y.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Kim H.,Seoul National University | Kim Y.,National Institute of Agricultural Science | Han M.Y.,Seoul National University
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to investigate the characterization of the event mean concentration (EMC) of runoff during heavy precipitation events on highways. Highway runoff quality data were collected from the 7th highway, in South Korea during 2007-2009. The samples were analyzed for runoff quantity and quality parameters such as CODcr, TSS, TPHs, TKN, NO3, TP, PO4 and six heavy metals, e.g.; As, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn. Analysis of resulting hydrographs and pollutant graphs indicates that the peak of the pollutant concentrations in runoff occurs 20 min after the first rainfall runoff occurrence. The first flush effect depends on the preceding dry period and the rainfall intensity. The results of this study can be used as a reference for water quality management of urban highways. Copyright © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Institute for Future Environmental Ecology Co., Seoul National University and National Institute of Agricultural Science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of microbiology and biotechnology | Year: 2016

Although many studies on the effects of genetically modified (GM) crops on soil microorganisms have been carried out over the past decades, they have provided contradictory information, even for the same GM crop, owing to the diversity of the soil environments in which they were conducted. This inconsistency in results suggests that the effects of GM crops on soil microorganisms should be considered from many aspects. In this study, we investigated the effects of the GM drought-tolerant rice MSRB2-Bar-8, which expresses the CaMSRB2 gene, on soil microorganisms based on the culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. To this end, rhizosphere soils of GM and non-GM (IM) rice were analyzed for soil chemistry, population densities of soil microorganisms, and microbial community structure (using pyrosequencing technology) at three growth stages (seedling, tillering, and maturity). There was no significant difference in the soil chemistry between GM and non-GM rice. The microbial densities of the GM soils were found to be within the range of those of the non-GM rice. In the pyrosequencing analyses, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi were dominant at the seedling stage, while Chloroflexi showed dominance over Proteobacteria at the maturity stage in both the GM and non-GM soils. An UPGMA dendrogram showed that the soil microbial communities were clustered by growth stage. Taken together, the results from this study suggest that the effects of MSRB2-Bar-8 cultivation on soil microorganisms are not significant.

PubMed | Korea Institute of Toxicology and National Institute of Agricultural Science
Type: | Journal: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP | Year: 2016

Worldwide demand for novel food source has grown and edible insects are a promising food sources for humans. Tenebrio molitor, as known as yellow mealworm, has advantages of being rich in protein, and easy to raise as a novel food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate subchronic toxicity, including potential hypersensitivity, of freeze-dried powdered T.molitor larvae (fdTML) in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The fdTML was administered orally once daily at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000mg/kg/day for 90 days. A toxicological assessment was performed, which included mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings, histopathologic examination and allergic reaction. There were no fdTML- related findings in clinical signs, urinalysis, hematology and serum chemistry, gross examination, histopathologic examination or allergic reaction. In conclusion, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for fdTML was determined to be in excess of 3000mg/kg/day in both sexes of rats under the experimental conditions of this study.

Eo J.,National Institute of Agricultural science | Park K.-C.,National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2016

Repeated fertilization in a monoculture system causes a nutrient imbalance, disturbing the soil bacterial community. To investigate the long-term effects of imbalanced fertilization, we analysed soils under pepper (Capsicum annum L.) cultivation for 18 years. The soil was treated with one of five regimens: untreated control, NPK, PK, NP, and NK. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla. Pyrosequencing revealed that diversity indices were not significantly influenced by different fertilization treatments. We found that the effect of fertilization varied at the genus level even within the same phylum, demonstrating divergent ecological responses of bacterial groups to disturbance at low taxonomic levels. The percentage abundances of Acidobacteria and Nitrospira were decreased in all fertilized plots. The percentages of genus Sphingomonas and JF421159 were increased only with NPK treatment, and our results suggested that bacterial community composition is altered by fertilization lacking one of three components. The percentages of Chloroflexi and Planctomycetes were decreased in the plots receiving N, while the percentage of candidate division TM7 showed an increase with N. The percentages of these genera were correlated with soil chemical parameters such as nitrate content and pH. Our study suggests that N promotes some bacterial groups, which are involved in the degradation of materials; however, it has an overall negative impact on the percentages of some other groups due to changes in the soil chemical properties. The percentages of Koribacter and Pseudolabrys were increased with NK treatment, likely due to a lack of P. Our results implied that N and P exert substantial effect on specific bacterial groups; in contrast, K has minimal effect. We suggested that an imbalanced N-P-K ratio caused by repeated fertilization could be a driving force altering the bacterial community composition not its diversity. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Mazorra L.M.,National Institute of Agricultural science | Holton N.,Imperial College London | Bishop G.J.,Imperial College London | Nunez M.,National Institute of Agricultural science
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroid hormones and, when applied exogenously, they induce physiological responses, including tolerance to heat shock (HS). How endogenous BR content and altered perception of BRs influence thermal tolerance is poorly understood. BR-induced thermotolerance in tomato seedlings with altered BR homeostasis was examined by assessing the survival, ion leakage and lipid peroxidation of seedlings from a BR-deficient mutant (extreme dwarf d x), a partially BR-insensitive mutant curl3 -abs allele (curl3 altered brassinolide sensitivity) and a line overexpressing the Dwarf, BR-biosynthesis gene (35SD). We confirmed that treatment with 1 μM of epi-brassinolide (EBL) induces thermotolerance of wild type seedlings following a HS regime at 45 °C. The curl3 -abs seedlings had the highest basal tolerance to heat, whereas the EBL-induced thermal tolerance of d x seedlings was greatest and responded to lower EBL concentrations. The d x and 35SD seedlings had similar thermal tolerance; however, they showed increased signs of oxidative stress. EBL reduced the induction of lipid peroxidation of seedlings after recovery from heat. Highest oxidative stress and peroxidase (POX) activity (EC was in BR-deficient d x mutant seedlings. EBL was able of inducing POX activity but not other antioxidant enzymes; however, effects of HS on POX activity of seedlings were absent or less marked. Taking together, results indicate that thermal tolerance is independent of endogenous BR content, but HS-mediated oxidative stress depends on BR levels. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.

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