National Institute of Agricultural Research INRA

of Rabat, Morocco

National Institute of Agricultural Research INRA

of Rabat, Morocco
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Ennami M.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research | Briache F.Z.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INRA | Gaboun F.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INRA | Abdelwahd R.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INRA | And 4 more authors.
Pest Management Science | Year: 2017

BACKGROUND: Orobanche crenata represents a major biotic constraint to production of faba bean and lentil in Morocco. While this parasitic plant attacks both of these crops, the extent to which Orobanche biotypes specialise in parasitising specific crops is unknown. To address this question, we studied O. crenata that grew on different hosts and quantified their host specificity to faba bean and lentil. The virulence of O. crenata populations on each host was investigated through field trials, pot and Petri dishes assays. Genetic diversity of the parasite populations was also assessed through molecular analyses. RESULTS: The two legume species showed distinct patterns of specificity. Faba bean was more susceptible to both O. crenata populations, while the specificity for lentil by lentil-grown O. crenata was evident at the final stage of the parasite life cycle as shown by correspondence factorial analyses. Considerable internal variation (81%) within O. crenata populations parasitising both legume species was observed by molecular analyses, but significant divergence (19%; Ø = 0.189; P = 0.010) among the populations was detected. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that O. crenata can adapt to specific host species, which is important knowledge when developing integrated pest management practices for parasitic weed control. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


El Khodrani N.,Mohammed V University | Zouahri A.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INRA | Arfaoui A.,Royal Institute of Executive Education | Iaaich H.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INRA | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2016

The aim of this work is to study the physico-chemical quality of groundwater in the water table of the Sfafaa's municipality district (Morocco). We have carried out a qualitative study of the water in different sites of the irrigated perimeter of Sfafaa located in the province of Sidi Slimane Gharb. In fact several measurement campaigns (pH, groundwater depth) and laboratory analysis (ionic balance) were conducted to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of water. We prospected 17 wells distributed into 6 zones: A, B, C, D, E, and F. Data were statistically analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that the depth of water table varies between 9 and 12 m and that 70.6% of the studied wells was highly to extremely saline and then inadequate for irrigation. The studied zones do not have the same salinity level. In fact, the E and F zones represent a significantly higher salinity compared to other zones. This was confirmed by the sodium and chloride rates. Similarly, the difference was statistically significant between zones for calcium, magnesium, potassium, carbonates, nitrates and sulfate. In conclusion, the use of waters of low quality for the irrigation leads to soil degradation by an accumulation of salts. This accumulation is more or less important depending on the quality of water, the nature of the soil, the climate and the way of irrigation. In order to overcome this situation of water degradation in the Sfafaa region, farmers should use efficiently and rationally fertilizers as well as water saving irrigation techniques and salt tolerant crops.


Zouahri A.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INRA | Dakak H.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INRA | Douaik A.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INRA | El Khadir M.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INRA | Moussadek R.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INRA
Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2015

Morocco has arid and semiarid climates. Irrigation is an imperative for agriculture. Skhirat region is known for the production of vegetables. Intensive peri-urban agriculture is associated with inconsiderate pumping of groundwater, and water becomes less abundant and of poor quality resulting in degradation of soil and water quality. Therefore, the objective of this research work was the assessment of the quality of irrigation water. The study site is located in a coastal area and dedicated to intensive land use for growing vegetables in a peri-urban agricultural zone. Monitoring of physicochemical parameters of water was carried out in 77 wells. Parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, and piezometric level were measured in situ while others like total dissolved solids and ionic balance were measured in laboratory whereas other parameters were calculated from those measured. Results showed that Na and Ca are predominant cations while Cl and SO4 are predominant anions. Piper diagram reveals two facies: sodic and calcic chlorinated. Regarding the permeability index, all wells are suitable for irrigation. The US Salinity Laboratory (USSL) diagram reveals that irrigation water has high salinization risk and low to medium alkalinization risk. The groundwater in the region is classified as very hard category; however, it does not present any risk of sodicity. These waters have a high risk of toxicity to chloride ions. In summary, although the groundwater in the Skhirat region presents a high risk of salinization, it is of good quality suitable for irrigation. Agricultural practices should be well managed to secure safe use of the water resource for a sustainable development of the agriculture in the region.


PubMed | National Institute of Agricultural Research INRA, Agronomic and Veterinary Institute Hassan II IAV and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Type: | Journal: Pest management science | Year: 2017

Orobanche crenata represents a major biotic constraint to production of faba bean and lentil in Morocco. While this parasitic plant attacks both of these crops, the extent to which Orobanche biotypes specialize in parasitizing specific crops is unknown. To address this question, we studied O. crenata that grew on different hosts and quantified their host specificity to faba bean and lentil. The virulence of O. crenata populations on each host was investigated through field trials, pot and Petri dishes assays. Genetic diversity of the parasite populations was also assessed through molecular analyses.The two legume species showed distinct patterns of specificity. Faba bean was more susceptible to both O. crenata populations, while the specificity for lentil by lentil-grown O. crenata was evident at the final stage of the parasite life cycle as shown by Correspondence Factorial Analyses. Considerable internal variation (81%) within O. crenata populations parasitizing both legume species was observed by molecular analyses, but significant divergence (19 %; = 0.189; p=0.010) among the populations was detected.These results indicate that O. crenata can adapt to specific host species, which is important knowledge when developing integrated pest management practices for parasitic weed control.

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