National Institute of Agricultural Research INIA

Leiria, Portugal

National Institute of Agricultural Research INIA

Leiria, Portugal
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Carvalho F.K.D.L.,Federal University of Campina Grande | Cook D.,Logan Research | Lee S.T.,Logan Research | Taylor C.M.,Missouri Botanical Garden | And 3 more authors.
Toxicon | Year: 2016

Numerous monofluoroacetate (MFA)-containing plants in Brazil cause sudden death syndrome precipitated by exercise in livestock, which is characterized by loss of balance, ataxia, labored breathing, muscle tremors, and recumbence leading to death. Four species of Palicourea collected at six farms were tested for the presence of MFA and their toxicity to rabbits. Palicourea longiflora and Palicourea barraensis contained MFA and caused sudden death in the rabbits. Palicourea croceoides and Palicourea nitidella did not contain MFA and were not toxic to rabbits. P. longiflora and P. barraensis were collected at three farms with a history of sudden death in their cattle. This is the first report of toxicity in regard to these two species. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Lima E.F.,Federal University of Roraima | Medeiros R.M.T.,Federal University of Campina Grande | Cook D.,Logan Research | Lee S.T.,Logan Research | And 4 more authors.
Toxicon | Year: 2016

Numerous plant species worldwide including Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae) and Tanaecium bilabiatum (Bignoniaceae) in Brazil cause acute cardiac failure (sudden death) and are known to contain monofluoroacetate (MFA). Other Bignoniaceae species including Fridericia japurensis (Arrabidaea japurensis) are reported to cause sudden death in livestock in the Brazilian state of Roraima and are suspected to contain MFA due to the similarity of clinical signs. In this study herbarium specimens of Fridericia japurensis and field collections suspected to be F. japurensis were analyzed for MFA, and plant material from the field collections was dosed to rabbits. No MFA was detected in the herbarium specimens authoritatively identified as F. japurensis; however, MFA was detected in the field collections, which were identified as T. bilabiatum. Rabbits dosed orally with T. bilabiatum died acutely. Voucher toxic specimens initially described as F. japurensis were incorrectly identified, and the correct botanical name for this plant is T. bilabiatum (Arrabidaea bilabiata). Based on this study we conclude that there are no data to support the toxicity of F. japurensis and that the plant previously reported under this name as causing acute cardiac failure in cattle in Roraima is T. bilabiatum. This research highlights the importance of voucher specimens as part of any toxic plant investigation and corrects the literature regarding these toxic plants. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Carlomagno M.,Institute Higiene | Matho C.,Institute Higiene | Cantou G.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INIA | Sanborn J.R.,University of California at Davis | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The environmental impact of rice agriculture is poorly studied in developing countries, mainly due to limitations of the analytical capacity. Here, we report the development of a clomazone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a fast and cost-effective tool to monitor the dissipation of this herbicide along the harvest. Antibodies were prepared using different strategies of hapten conjugation, and the best hapten/antibody pair was selected. It proved to be a reliable tool to measure the herbicide in the 2.0?20 ng/mL range in field samples, with excellent correlation with high-performance liquid chromatography results. The assay was used to study the dissipation of the herbicide in the floodwater of experimental rice paddies in Uruguay. Large differences in the residual amounts of herbicide were observed depending on the flooding practices. Because of its robustness and simplicity, the assay may be useful to delineate and monitor management practices that can contribute to minimizing the release of the herbicide in the environment. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Millas P.,Austral University of Chile | Carrillo R.,Austral University of Chile | Carrillo R.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INIA
Austral Entomology | Year: 2014

Previous studies using white grub larvae have not found a relationship between scarabaeid larval growth and the quantity of total organic matter (OM) in the feeding soil. This is probably because it is the type or quality of the OM that is more important to larval nutritional requirements. The aim of this research was to study, under laboratory conditions, how the quality of OM, measured as the percentage of particulate OM (POM), affected the live weight and faecal production of Hylamorpha elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) larvae. Results showed that live weight gain of second and third instar larvae increased with an increase in the amount of POM. The faecal production showed no differences. Therefore, the effect on second and third instar larvae was related to the quality of the resource and not to an increase in the quantity of soil ingested. Better understanding of the dynamics of POM and other labile fractions of the soil OM as microbial biomass could be fundamental to assessing and implementing out agricultural practices that can ameliorate the impact of this pest. © 2014 Australian Entomological Society.


Pereira V.T.,Center for Biodiversity | Sousa L.,University of Lisbon | de Sousa A.T.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INIA | Pais M.S.,Center for Biodiversity
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2015

Pyrus communis ‘Rocha’ is an economically important crop very susceptible to the pathogenic fungus Stemphylium vesicarium, the causal agent of brown spot disease. Knowledge on the complexity of mechanisms responsible for resistance to S. vesicarium infection is necessary for definition of strategies to improve defence responses in susceptible cultivars. To investigate the molecular mechanisms behind Pyrus communis defence responses to S. vesicarium, a 6624 (3312 × 2) cDNA microarray was constructed to identify genes differentially expressed between a resistant/tolerant cultivar (‘Ercolini’) and a susceptible cultivar (‘Rocha’). Both cultivars were compared to evaluate their genetic background differences prior to inoculation (T0h) and transcriptional changes along a time course infection with S. vesicarium (T6h and T24h). Two cDNA libraries, from ‘Rocha’ and ‘Ercolini’ pear cultivars, spotted in the microarray resulted on 146 differential expressed genes. Transcriptome analysis revealed several transcripts related to stress and defence, namely peroxidases, 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase/shikimate 5-dehydrogenase, thiazole biosynthetic enzyme, serpins, cytochromes P450, 2-methyl-6-phytylbenzoquinone methyltransferase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, polyneuridine-aldehyde esterase precursor, lipoxygenases and PR proteins. The results suggest that resistance/tolerance of ‘Ercolini’ cultivar may result from the rapid activation of defence mechanisms while in ‘Rocha’ cultivar the defence mechanisms may be activated too late for inducing an efficient response to infection by S. vesicarium. Cell wall strengthening and biosynthesis of antifungal compounds may constitute efficient physical and chemical barriers to S. vesicarium infection and priming emerges as a putative mechanism of resistance/tolerance. The evidence gathered combined with knowledge on host/endophyte signalling in mycorrhiza leads us to suggest priming as a measure to brown spot disease control in ‘Rocha’ pear cultivar through symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi in order to anticipate and induce a more efficient activation of defence mechanisms. Also the thiazole biosynthetic enzyme and the serpins appears as potential candidates for the development of molecular markers for resistance to infection. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Pereira V.T.,University of Lisbon | Sousa L.,University of Lisbon | de Sousa A.T.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INIA | Pais M.S.,University of Lisbon
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2015

Pyrus communis ‘Rocha’ is an economically important crop very susceptible to the pathogenic fungus Stemphylium vesicarium, the causal agent of brown spot disease. Knowledge on the complexity of mechanisms responsible for resistance to S. vesicarium infection is necessary for definition of strategies to improve defence responses in susceptible cultivars. To investigate the molecular mechanisms behind Pyrus communis defence responses to S. vesicarium, a 6624 (3312 × 2) cDNA microarray was constructed to identify genes differentially expressed between a resistant/tolerant cultivar (‘Ercolini’) and a susceptible cultivar (‘Rocha’). Both cultivars were compared to evaluate their genetic background differences prior to inoculation (T0h) and transcriptional changes along a time course infection with S. vesicarium (T6h and T24h). Two cDNA libraries, from ‘Rocha’ and ‘Ercolini’ pear cultivars, spotted in the microarray resulted on 146 differential expressed genes. Transcriptome analysis revealed several transcripts related to stress and defence, namely peroxidases, 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase/shikimate 5-dehydrogenase, thiazole biosynthetic enzyme, serpins, cytochromes P450, 2-methyl-6-phytylbenzoquinone methyltransferase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, polyneuridine-aldehyde esterase precursor, lipoxygenases and PR proteins. The results suggest that resistance/tolerance of ‘Ercolini’ cultivar may result from the rapid activation of defence mechanisms while in ‘Rocha’ cultivar the defence mechanisms may be activated too late for inducing an efficient response to infection by S. vesicarium. Cell wall strengthening and biosynthesis of antifungal compounds may constitute efficient physical and chemical barriers to S. vesicarium infection and priming emerges as a putative mechanism of resistance/tolerance. The evidence gathered combined with knowledge on host/endophyte signalling in mycorrhiza leads us to suggest priming as a measure to brown spot disease control in ‘Rocha’ pear cultivar through symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi in order to anticipate and induce a more efficient activation of defence mechanisms. Also the thiazole biosynthetic enzyme and the serpins appears as potential candidates for the development of molecular markers for resistance to infection. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Blumetto O.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INIA | Ruggia A.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INIA | Dalmau A.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Estelles F.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Villagra A.,Animal Technology Center
Animal Production Science | Year: 2016

The objective of the present study was to characterise the behaviour of Holstein steers in three different production systems. Forty-eight castrated Holstein males were randomly divided into three groups and allocated to the following three outdoor treatments: (T1) animals confined in a yard with an area of 210 m2, (T2) animals confined in a similar-sized yard but with 6 h of access to a pasture plot, (T3) animals maintained throughout the experiment on a pasture plot. Behaviour was recorded by scan sampling, 12 h a day (from 0700 hours to 1900 hours), 3 days per week, for 4 weeks evenly distributed from Week 7 to Week 16 of the experiment. So as to assess their patterns of behaviour, a negative binomial regression, correspondence analysis and logistic regressions were performed. Grazing was the predominant behaviour among Groups T2 and T3, while 'eating hay' was the most frequent behaviour among Group T1. For all treatments, lying was the second-most frequent behaviour. Despite animals in T2 having access to pasture for only half of the time with respect to those in T3, there was no difference between both treatments in the time spent grazing. Correspondence analysis of behaviour as a function of weather conditions showed that several behaviours were close to certain weather conditions, e.g. 'standing' and 'ruminating while standing' were closer to light rainy weather, while 'lying' or 'ruminating while lying' were more related to sunny weather.'Lying' tended to increase along the day in all treatments, while 'eating hay' increased along the day within Group T1, but decreased within Groups T2 and T3. It is concluded that the management conditions associated with the systems that were studied produced different behavioural patterns in the steers. Grazing behaviour is important for the animals, and the permanent or restricted possibility to perform it, determined by the production system, meant that the patterns of other behaviours changed to give priority to pasture intake. © CSIRO 2016.


Banchero G.E.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INIA | Milton J.T.B.,University of Western Australia | Lindsay D.R.,University of Western Australia | Martin G.B.,University of Western Australia | And 2 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2015

In sheep production systems based on extensive grazing, neonatal mortality often reaches 15% to 20% of lambs born, and the mortality rate can be doubled in the case of multiple births. An important contributing factor is the nutrition of the mother because it affects the amount of colostrum available at birth. Ewes carrying multiple lambs have higher energy requirements than ewes carrying a single lamb and this problem is compounded by limitations to voluntary feed intake as the gravid uterus compresses the rumen. This combination of factors means that the nutritional requirements of the ewe carrying multiple lambs can rarely be met by the supply of pasture alone. This problem can overcome by supplementation with energy during the last week of pregnancy, a treatment that increases colostrum production and also reduces colostrum viscosity, making it easier for the neonatal lamb to suck. In addition, litter size and nutrition both accelerate the decline in concentration of circulating progesterone that, in turn, triggers the onsets of both birth and lactogenesis, and thus ensures the synchrony of these two events. Furthermore, the presence of colostrum in the gut of the lamb increases its ability to recognize its mother, and thus improves mother-young bonding. Most cereal grains that are rich in energy in the form of starch, when used as supplements in late pregnancy will increase colostrum production by 90% to 185% above control (unsupplemented) values. Variation among types of cereal grain in the response they induce may be due to differences in the amount of starch digested post-ruminally. As a percentage of grain dry matter intake, the amount of starch entering the lower digestive tract is 14% for maize, 8.5% for barley and 2% for oats. Supplements of high quality protein from legumes and oleiferous seeds can also increase colostrum production but they are less effective than cereal grains. In conclusion, short-term supplementation before parturition, particularly with energy-rich concentrates, can improve colostrum production, help meet the energy and immunological requirements for new-born lambs, and improve lamb survival. © The Animal Consortium 2015.


Banchero G.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INIA | Vazquez A.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INIA | Montossi F.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INIA | De Barbieri I.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INIA | Quintans G.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INIA
Animal Production Science | Year: 2010

This study tested the hypothesis that ewes bearing single or twin lambs shorn at 70 or 120 days of pregnancy would give birth to lambs more vigorous than those born to unshorn ewes, increasing the chances of lamb survival. This was tested in two experiments. In the first, 57 adult Corriedale ewes bearing single lambs were allocated to three treatments; shearing at Day 70 of gestation (S70, n = 18), shearing at Day 120 of gestation (S120, n = 19) or unshorn (US, n = 20). In the second, 57 Corriedale ewes bearing twins were allocated to the same treatments: S70, n = 18; S120, n = 20; or US, n = 19. All ewes grazed native pasture until penned and fed individually to requirements during the last 10 days of pregnancy. Gestation length, lamb birthweight, lamb behaviour during their first hour of life, blood glucose and colostrum amount and composition were measured. In the first experiment, with single lambs, birthweights were similar (4.8, 4.7 and 4.7 kg for S70, S120 and US ewes, respectively; s.e. = 0.17, P = 0.47) and the ewes had lengths of gestation of 149±0.6, 148±0.5 and 147±0.6 days respectively. Seventy-eight percent of S70 and 61% of S120 lambs sucked compared with 21% of US lambs (P < 0.001). In the second experiment, with twin lambs, S70 lambs were heavier than S120, which were heavier than US lambs (3.9, 3.4 and 3.1 kg; s.e. = 0.1, P < 0.0001). Ninety-seven percent of S70 and 92% of S120 lambs stood in their first hour of life compared with 68% of US lambs (P<0.05). Sixty-seven percent of S70 and 63% of S120 lambs sucked compared with 22% of US lambs (P<0.001). The length of gestation was 148±0.4, 147±0.5 and 144±0.5 days for S70, S120 and US ewes. In both experiments there was no difference in the amount or quality of the colostrum produced by the ewes of the different treatments. We conclude that pre-partum shearing improves lambs' behaviour independently of their birthweight and suggest that this could be because the lambs are more physiologically mature at birth. © 2010 CSIRO.


PubMed | University of the Republic of Uruguay, National Institute of Agricultural Research INIA and Beekeeping Unit
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2017

The beehive as a quantitative monitor of pesticide residues applied over a soybean crop was studied through a semi field experiment of controlled exposure of honey bees to pesticides in macro tunnels. The distribution within exposed beehives of pesticides commonly used in soybean plantation, was assessed. Residue levels of insecticides in soybean leaves, honey bees, wax, honey and pollen were analyzed. The transference from pesticides present in the environment into the beehive was evidenced. The obtained results allow relating pesticide concentrations present in the environment with traces found in foraging bees. Therefore, pesticide transference ratios could be calculated for each detected compound (acetamiprid, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam) which showed a linear inverse trend with their 1-octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow). The least transferred pesticide to the hive (acetamiprid) has the highest vapor pressure (Vp). This study gives new insights on the usefulness of monitoring the environment through beehives aiming to evaluate if agroecosystems remain sustainable. It also contributes to generate valuable information for model building aiming to predict environmental quality through beehives analysis.

Loading National Institute of Agricultural Research INIA collaborators
Loading National Institute of Agricultural Research INIA collaborators