National Institute of Agricultural and Veterinary Research

Elvas, Portugal

National Institute of Agricultural and Veterinary Research

Elvas, Portugal
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Galinha C.,University of Lisbon | Galinha C.,Technical University of Delft | Sanchez-Martinez M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Pacheco A.M.G.,University of Lisbon | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Agronomic biofortification of staple crops is an effectiveway to enhance their contents in essential nutrients up the food chain, with a view to correcting for their deficiencies in animal or human status. Selenium (Se) is one such case, for its uneven distribution in the continental crust and, therefore, in agricultural lands easily translates into substantial variation in nutritional intakes. Cereals are far from being the main sources of Se on a content basis, but they are likely the major contributors to intake on a dietary basis. To assess their potential to assimilate and biotransform Se, bread and durum wheat were enriched with Se through foliar and soil addition at an equivalent field rate of 100 g of Se per hectare (ha), using sodium selenate and sodium selenite as Se-supplementation matrices, in actual field conditions throughout. Biotransformation of inorganic Se was evaluated by using HPLC−ICP-MS after enzymatic hydrolysis for Se-species extraction in the resulting mature wheat grains. Selenomethionine and SeVI were identified and quantified: the formerwas the predominant species, representing 70–100 % of the total Se in samples; the maximum amount of inorganic Se was below 5 %. These results were similar for both supplementation methods and for both wheat varieties. Judging from the present results, one can conclude that agronomic biofortification of wheat may improve the nutritional quality of wheat grains with significant amounts of selenomethionine, which is an attractive option for increasing the Se status in human diets through Se-enriched, wheat-based foodstuff. © Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2014.


Galinha C.,University of Lisbon | Freitas M.D.C.,University of Lisbon | G. Pacheco A.M.,University of Lisbon | Coutinho J.,National Institute of Agricultural and Veterinary Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry | Year: 2013

Selenium (Se) is a trace element essential to the well-being and health quality of humankind. Plant-derived foodstuffs, namely cereals, are the major dietary sources of Se in most countries throughout the world, even if Se contents are strongly dependent upon the corresponding levels in cereal-growing soils. Therefore, wheat is one of the staple crops that appears as an obvious candidate for Se biofortification, considering its gross-tonnage production and nutritional relevance worldwide. The present paper focuses on the ability of bread and durum wheat - Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum Desf., respectively - to accumulate Se after supplementation via a foliar-addition procedure. Two of the most representative wheat cultivars in Portugal - Jordão (bread) and Marialva (durum) - have been selected for supplementation trials, following the same agronomic practices and field schedules as the regular (non-supplemented) crops of those varieties (sowing: November 2010; harvesting: July 2011). Foliar additions were performed at the booting and grain-filling stages, using sodium selenate and sodium selenite solutions at three different Se concentrations - equivalent to field supplementation rates of 4, 20 and 100 g of Se per ha - with and without potassium iodide. Selenium contents in wheat grains obtained under foliar application are compared to data from regular wheat samples (field blanks) grown at the same soil/season, yet devoid of any Se supplementation. Total Se in all field samples was determined by cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA), via the short-lived nuclide 77mSe (half-life time: 17.5 s), in the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI; CTN-IST, Sacavém). Quality control of the analytical procedure was asserted through concurrent analyses of NIST-SRM® 1567a (Wheat Flour). Results show that foliar additions can increase Se contents in mature grains up to 15 and 40 times for Marialva and Jordão, respectively, when compared to non-supplemented crops. Jordão and Marialva varieties responded differently to the stage of application. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


Galinha C.,University of Lisbon | Galinha C.,Technical University of Delft | Pacheco A.M.G.,University of Lisbon | Freitas M.C.,University of Lisbon | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry | Year: 2014

This work focuses on the ability of bread and durum wheat to accumulate selenium (Se) via a soil-addition procedure at sowing time. Total Se in mature-grain samples was determined by neutron activation analysis (cyclic and radiochemical). Results show that Se-supplementation at the top rate (100 g Se ha-1) can increase Se contents up to 2, 16, 18 and 20 times for Jordão, Roxo, Marialva and Celta cultivars, respectively, when compared to their unsupplemented crops. These findings do not preclude the need for weighing up an eventual trade-off between agrochemical costs, field logistics and Se recovery for alternative Se-biofortification methods. © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.


Galinha C.,University of Lisbon | Galinha C.,Technical University of Delft | Pacheco A.M.G.,University of Lisbon | Freitas M.D.C.,University of Lisbon | And 5 more authors.
Crop and Pasture Science | Year: 2015

Following the first morphological and taxonomic inventory of Portuguese wheat in 1933, an archival collection of representative varieties has been maintained, replanted and documented by the National Institute of Agricultural and Veterinary Research (INIAV), specifically by its division formerly known as the National Station for Plant Improvement (ENMP-Elvas, now INIAV-Elvas). The INIAV-Elvas wheat collection has always been an invaluable asset in studies of agronomic and/or genetic development of wheat lines, as well as providing a frame of reference for the nutritional evolution of Portuguese wheat crops. This work addresses the status of selenium (Se) in a pool of 46 accessions of bread wheat. Special attention is paid to the (low) levels of Se, for which wheat acts as an important source in human diets, with a view to curbing its deficiency in Portuguese cultivars through biofortification strategies. All grain samples were irradiated at the Portuguese Research Reactor, and total Se was determined through cyclic neutron activation analysis. Our results indicate that the best candidates for an improvement of Se contents in mature grains are cvv. Ideal, Ribeiro (b) and Ribeiro (a), and the worst candidates are cvv. Restauração, Galego Rapado and Rieti. © CSIRO 2015.

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