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Santos C.,Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra | Botelho G.,Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra | Caldeira I.,National Institute of Agricultural | Caldeira I.,University of Evora | And 3 more authors.
Ciencia e Tecnica Vitivinicola

During the last few years, Portugal has seen an increasing trend in the development of new fruit-based products, such as liquors and spirits. The antioxidant capacity of fruit liquors and spirits, sourced commercially or produced on a pilot-scale, was assessed using two simple spectrophotometric methods: the 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. The major goal of this work was to find which of the two methods is the most suitable and accurate in determining antioxidant capacity for fruit liquors and spirits. In addition, the total phenolic compounds of both kinds of alcoholic beverages were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Despite the widespread use of DPPH assay for distilled drinks, a weak Spearman correlation coefficient (r = 0.023) between ABTS and DPPH methods in spirits were found, as well as, between DPPH values and total phenolic compounds content (r = 0.239). This work highlights the limitations of DPPH assay when used for analysis of samples with very low antioxidant capacity, as distilled spirits. Source

Dougnon T.J.,University Abomey Calavi | Aboh B.A.,National Institute of Agricultural | Kpodekon T.M.,University Abomey Calavi | Honvou S.,University Abomey Calavi | Youssao I.,University Abomey Calavi
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science

A Seventy day feeding trial was carried out to determine the effect of dietary pellets of Moringa oleifera leaves (PML) on digestibly,weight gain and carcass trait of growing rabbits. Solar drying of M.Oleifera leaves is carried out before its transformation in pellets for the conservation of raw material. The PML were substituted to the commercial feed at level of 0, 10 and 15% to formulate diets of PML0 (control), PML10 and PML15 respectively. Forty five growing rabbits, 35-55 days of age, were allocated to three treatment groups with fivereplicates in a completely randomized design. Pellets of M. oleifera were completely consumed. Digestibility of crude proteins was higher(p <0.05) for diets PML10 (75%) and R15 (70.5%). The best weight gainsand feed conversion ratios were obtained in rabbits fed PML10 and PML15 diets respectively for 4.43: 1 and 4.63: 1. The rabbit's carcass yield ranged from 60.6 to 64.5%. Pellets of M. oleifera can be substituted at a level of 15% to the commercial feed with a positive effect on weight gains and carcass characteristics of rabbits. The rabbit's meat of this type of feed ingredient present a good sensory quality. Source

Crawled News Article
Site: http://www.nature.com/nature/current_issue/

Honeybee colonies could be compensating for the harmful effects of certain pesticides by producing more workers, at least in the short term. Some European countries banned neonicotinoid pesticides in 2013, but this remains controversial because field studies have failed to confirm the adverse effects reported for bees in the lab. Mickaël Henry at the French National Institute of Agricultural Research in Avignon and his colleagues positioned honeybee colonies in farmers' fields so that they were exposed to varying levels of the pesticide thiamethoxam. The team radio-tagged and monitored nearly 7,000 bees, and found that pesticide exposure caused an acceleration in death rate over time. The colonies, however, compensated for dead foragers by producing more workers and fewer drones. This maintains honey production but could decrease bee reproduction in the long term. The risks of pesticides in the field may be best understood by studying entire colony cycles, the authors say.

Cabanillas B.,University of Bonn | Cuadrado C.,National Institute of Agricultural | Rodriguez J.,Research Institute Hospital 12 Of Octubre I12 | Hart J.,University of Bonn | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry

Abstract This study aimed to analyze the influence of thermal processing on the IgE binding properties of three forms of peanut, its effects in the content of individual allergens and IgE cross-linking capacity in effector cells of allergy. Three forms of peanut were selected and subjected to thermal processing. Immunoreactivity was evaluated by means of immunoblot or ELISA inhibition assay. Specific antibodies were used to identify changes in the content of the main allergens in peanut samples. The ability of treated peanut to cross-link IgE was evaluated in a basophil activation assay and Skin Prick Testing (SPT). The results showed that thermal/pressure treatments at specific conditions had the capacity to decrease IgE binding properties of protein extracts from peanut. This effect went along with an altered capacity to activate basophils sensitized with IgE from patients with peanut allergy and the wheal size in SPT. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Tadeo J.L.,National Institute of Agricultural | Sanchez-Brunete C.,National Institute of Agricultural | Albero B.,National Institute of Agricultural | Garcia-Valcarcel A.I.,National Institute of Agricultural | Perez R.A.,National Institute of Agricultural
Central European Journal of Chemistry

Spreading sewage sludge on agricultural lands has been actively promoted by national authorities as an economic way of recycling. However, as by-product of wastewater treatment, sewage sludge may contain toxic substances, which could be incorporated into agricultural products or be distributed in the environment. Moreover, sediments can be contaminated by the discharge of wastewater effluents into rivers. This article reviews the determination of emerging contaminants (surfactants, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products) in environmental solid samples (sludge, soil and sediment). Sample preparation, including extraction and clean-up, as well as the subsequent instrumental determination of contaminants are discussed. Recent applications of extraction techniques, such as Soxhlet extraction, ultrasound assisted extraction, pressurised liquid extraction, microwave assisted extraction and matrix solid-phase dispersion to the analysis of emerging contaminants in environmental solid samples are reviewed. Determination of these contaminants, generally carried out by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled with different detectors, especially mass spectrometry for the identification and quantification of residues, is also summarised and discussed. © Versita Sp. z o.o. Source

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