Hampton, VA, United States
Hampton, VA, United States

The National Institute of Aerospace is a non-profit research and graduate education institute headquartered in Hampton, Virginia, near NASA's Langley Research Center. NIA's mission is to conduct leading-edge aerospace and atmospheric research, develop new technologies for the nation and help inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers.NIA was formed in 2002 by a consortium of research universities to ensure a national capability to support NASA's mission by expanding collaboration with academia and leveraging expertise inside and outside NASA. NIA performs research in a broad range of disciplines including space exploration, systems engineering, nanoscale materials science, flight systems, aerodynamics, air traffic management, aviation safety, planetary and space science, and global climate change.NIA is headed by Dr. Douglas O. Stanley, who was named interim to the post of president and executive director in July 2012. He succeeded Dr. Robert Lindberg, who became the first President and Executive Director in October 2003. Wikipedia.


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Patent
National Institute of Aerospace and Space Administration | Date: 2013-08-08

Some implementations provide a device (e.g., solar panel) that includes an active layer and a solar absorbance layer. The active layer includes a first N-type layer and a first P-type layer. The solar absorbance layer is coupled to a first surface of the active layer. The solar absorbance layer includes a polymer composite. In some implementations, the polymer composite includes one of at least metal salts and/or carbon nanotubes. In some implementations, the active layer is configured to provide the photovoltaic effect. In some implementations, the active layer further includes a second N-type layer and a second P-type layer. In some implementations, the active layer is configured to provide the thermoelectric effect. In some implementations, the device further includes a cooling layer coupled to a second surface of the active layer. In some implementations, the cooling layer includes one of at least zinc oxides, indium oxides, and/or carbon nanotubes.


Patent
U. S. A. As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration and National Institute of Aerospace | Date: 2013-07-12

Some implementations provide a composite material that includes a first material and a second material. In some implementations, the composite material is a metamaterial. The first material includes a chiral polymer (e.g., crystalline chiral helical polymer, poly--benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG), poly-L-lactic acid (PLA), polypeptide, and/or polyacetylene). The second material is within the chiral polymer. The first material and the second material are configured to provide an effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material is negative. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less is at least in a wavelength of one of at least a visible spectrum, an infrared spectrum, a microwave spectrum, and/or an ultraviolet spectrum.


Patent
National Institute of Aerospace and United States | Date: 2014-05-27

Robust, flexible, lightweight, low profile enhanced performance dielectric barrier discharge actuators (plasma actuators) based on aerogels/nanofoams with controlled pore size and size distribution as well as pore shape. The plasma actuators offer high body force as well as high force to weight ratios (thrust density). The flexibility and mechanical robustness of the actuators allows them to be shaped to conform to the surface to which they are applied. Carbon nanotube (CNT) based electrodes serve to further decrease the weight and profile of the actuators while maintaining flexibility while insulating nano-inclusions in the matrix enable tailoring of the mechanical properties. Such actuators are required for flow control in aeronautics and moving machinery such as wind turbines, noise abatement in landing gear and rotary wing aircraft and other applications.


Patent
United States and National Institute of Aerospace | Date: 2013-08-24

A method allows for preparation of CNT nanocomposites having improved mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. Structured carbon nanotube forms such as sheet, yarn, and tape are modified with -conjugated conductive polymers, including polyaniline (PANI), fabricated by in-situ polymerization. The PANI modified CNT nanocomposites are subsequently post-processed to improve mechanical properties by hot press and carbonization.


Patent
National Institute of Aerospace and United States | Date: 2014-05-16

A novel radiation hardened chip package technology protects microelectronic chips and systems in aviation/space or terrestrial devices against high energy radiation. The proposed technology of a radiation hardened chip package using rare earth elements and mulitlayered structure provides protection against radiation bombardment from alpha and beta particles to neutrons and high energy electromagnetic radiation.


Nishikawa H.,National Institute of Aerospace
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2012

In this paper, we propose to write a source term in the divergence form. A conservation law with a source term can then be written as a single divergence form. We demonstrate that it enables to discretize both the conservation law and the source term in the same framework, and thus greatly simplifies the construction of numerical schemes. To illustrate the advantage of the divergence formulation, we apply the new formulation to construct a uniformly third-order accurate edge-based finite-volume scheme for conservation laws with a source term. Third-order accuracy is demonstrated for regular and irregular triangular grids for the linear advection and Burgers' equations with a source term. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Nishikawa H.,National Institute of Aerospace
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2014

In this paper, we present constructions of first-, second-, and third-order schemes for diffusion by the method introduced in Nishikawa (2007) [10]. In this method, numerical schemes for diffusion are constructed by advection schemes via an equivalent hyperbolic system. This paper demonstrates that the method enables straightforward constructions of diffusion schemes for finite-volume methods on unstructured grids. In particular, it is demonstrated that a robust first-order upwind scheme leads to a robust first-order diffusion scheme, and a high-order advection scheme leads to a high-order diffusion scheme. It is shown that first-, second-, and third-order schemes are capable of producing first-, second-, and third-order accurate solution gradients, respectively, on irregular grids. Accuracy, Fourier stability, and the energy stability of the developed schemes are discussed. A new hyperbolic diffusion system having virtually no source terms is also introduced to simplify the construction of the third-order scheme. Numerical results are presented for regular and irregular triangular grids to demonstrate not only the superior accuracy but also the accelerated steady convergence over a traditional method. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Lin Y.,National Institute of Aerospace | Connell J.W.,NASA
Nanoscale | Year: 2012

The recent surge in graphene research has stimulated interest in the investigation of various 2-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials. Among these materials, the 2D boron nitride (BN) nanostructures are in a unique position. This is because they are the isoelectric analogs to graphene structures and share very similar structural characteristics and many physical properties except for the large band gap. The main forms of the 2D BN nanostructures include nanosheets (BNNSs), nanoribbons (BNNRs), and nanomeshes (BNNMs). BNNRs are essentially BNNSs with narrow widths in which the edge effects become significant; BNNMs are also variations of BNNSs, which are supported on certain metal substrates where strong interactions and the lattice mismatch between the substrate and the nanosheet result in periodic shallow regions on the nanosheet surface. Recently, the hybrids of 2D BN nanostructures with graphene, in the form of either in-plane hybrids or inter-plane heterolayers, have also drawn much attention. In particular, the BNNS-graphene heterolayer architectures are finding important electronic applications as BNNSs may serve as excellent dielectric substrates or separation layers for graphene electronic devices. In this article, we first discuss the structural basics, spectroscopic signatures, and physical properties of the 2D BN nanostructures. Then, various top-down and bottom-up preparation methodologies are reviewed in detail. Several sections are dedicated to the preparation of BNNRs, BNNMs, and BNNS-graphene hybrids, respectively. Following some more discussions on the applications of these unique materials, the article is concluded with a summary and perspectives of this exciting new field. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: GEOPHYSICS | Award Amount: 205.49K | Year: 2013

Earth is unique among the known planets in exhibiting plate tectonics as the primary means of transporting internally generated heat. Plate tectonics is responsible for Earths unusual topography distribution, geochemical interaction between the surface and the deep interior, and the strength of the geodynamo, among other factors that make our home planet special. The timing of the origin of plate tectonics on Earth has been difficult to establish observationally, but there are hints of very early (Hadean) geochemical processes with modern plate tectonic analogues. The mechanism and timing of plate tectonic initiation have direct bearing on models of the geochemical and thermal evolution of our planet, the uniqueness of Earth as an abode for life, and our understanding terrestrial planets in general.

This project will primarily support a graduate student to carry out, under the mentoring of the PI, numerical simulations of heat transport in the pre-plate tectonic Earth in order to understand the transition to plate tectonic behavior. This period of history is dominated by volcanic heat transport, called the heat-pipe mode of planetary cooling. Numerical simulation of the flow of Earth?s mantle materials including heat transport by melting and melt segregation (volcanism) will be accomplished using a specialized code. A systematic investigation of the parameters governing convection and melting will be undertaken, and bounds on the transition to plate tectonics will be established. The implications for early Earth will be compared with published petrological and geochemical data.


Nishikawa H.,National Institute of Aerospace
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2010

In this paper, we unify advection and diffusion into a single hyperbolic system by extending the first-order system approach introduced for the diffusion equation [J. Comput. Phys., 227 (2007) 315-352] to the advection-diffusion equation. Specifically, we construct a unified hyperbolic advection-diffusion system by expressing the diffusion term as a first-order hyperbolic system and simply adding the advection term to it. Naturally then, we develop upwind schemes for this entire system; there is thus no need to develop two different schemes, i.e., advection and diffusion schemes. We show that numerical schemes constructed in this way can be automatically uniformly accurate, allow O(h) time step, and compute the solution gradients (viscous stresses/heat fluxes for the Navier-Stokes equations) simultaneously to the same order of accuracy as the main variable, for all Reynolds numbers. We present numerical results for boundary-layer type problems on non-uniform grids in one dimension and irregular triangular grids in two dimensions to demonstrate various remarkable advantages of the proposed approach. In particular, we show that the schemes solving the first-order advection-diffusion system give a tremendous speed-up in CPU time over traditional scalar schemes despite the additional cost of carrying extra variables and solving equations for them. We conclude the paper with discussions on further developments to come. © 2009 Elsevier Inc.

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