National Institute of Aeronautics and Space LAPAN

Bandung, Indonesia

National Institute of Aeronautics and Space LAPAN

Bandung, Indonesia
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Nugroho J.T.,National Institute of Aeronautics and Space LAPAN | Zylshal,National Institute of Aeronautics and Space LAPAN | Chulafak G.A.,National Institute of Aeronautics and Space LAPAN | Kushardono D.,National Institute of Aeronautics and Space LAPAN
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science | Year: 2017

LAPAN-A2 is a 2nd generation of microsatellite developed by the Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN), Indonesia. This satellite has been launched on September 28, 2015, with several primary missions are: Earth observation using an RGB camera, maritime traffic monitoring using Automatic Identification System (AIS), and supporting disaster mitigation through amateur radio automatic packet reporting system (APRS) and a voice repeater. The installed camera on the satellite can provide imagery with 3.5 m spatial resolution and able to view a swath 7 km wide. This study is attempt to classify and evaluate the accuracy of land cover and land use (LCLU) map classified from the LAPAN-A2 satellite data. As a reference we used the Pleiades-1A Orthorectified imagery data with 0.5 m spatial resolution. Through visual interpretation method, we classified the LCLU into five classess as follows: water body, building, vegetation, road, and bare land. The confusion matrix was applied to evaluate the classification results for three selected area of interest (AOI). We obtained the overall accuracy, producer's accuracy, and user's accuracy are about 61.77%, 61.02%, and 83.78% respectively. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.


Muhamad J.,Nagoya University | Muhamad J.,National Institute of Aeronautics and Space LAPAN | Kusano K.,Nagoya University | Inoue S.,Nagoya University | And 3 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2017

In order to understand the flare trigger mechanism, we conduct three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations using a coronal magnetic field model derived from data observed by the Hinode satellite. Several types of magnetic bipoles are imposed into the photospheric boundary of the Nonlinear Force-free Field model of Active Region (AR) NOAA 10930 on 2006 December 13, to investigate what kind of magnetic disturbance may trigger the flare. As a result, we confirm that certain small bipole fields, which emerge into the highly sheared global magnetic field of an AR, can effectively trigger a flare. These bipole fields can be classified into two groups based on their orientation relative to the polarity inversion line: the so-called opposite polarity, and reversed shear structures, as suggested by Kusano et al. We also investigate the structure of the footpoints of reconnected field lines. By comparing the distribution of reconstructed field lines and observed flare ribbons, the trigger structure of the flare can be inferred. Our simulation suggests that the data-constrained simulation, taking into account both the large-scale magnetic structure and small-scale magnetic disturbance (such as emerging fluxes), is a good way to discover a flare-producing AR, which can be applied to space weather prediction. © 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Oigawa M.,Kyoto University | Matsuda T.,Kyoto University | Tsuda T.,Kyoto University | Noersomadi,Kyoto University | Noersomadi,National Institute of Aeronautics and Space LAPAN
Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan | Year: 2017

Mechanisms related to the diurnal cycle of tropical deep convection over a complex terrain were investigated in the Bandung basin, West Java, Indonesia. Observational data were analyzed from X-band radar, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, and radiosondes, in conjunction with high-resolution numerical model data. Significant diurnal variation of GNSS-derived precipitable water vapor (PWV), which peaked in the early evening, was observed from 13 to 19 March 2013. During this period, the X-band radar detected convective initiation at approximately 1200 local time over the southern slope of the basin. A 2-km-mesh model successfully simulated the observed diurnal variations of PWV and rainfall from 15 to 17 March 2013. In the mod1el, moist air was present at the bottom of the basin early in the morning, which was transported to the southern slope of the basin by valley wind circulation after sunrise. In contrast, humidity was lower in the northern part of the basin due to a downward circulating valley wind. The valley wind decreased static stability around the southern slope of the basin by transporting moisture. It also caused a low-level wind convergence, resulting in convective initiation on the southern slope of the basin. The GNSS receiver network also recorded this simulated water vapor variability associated with the valley wind. These results suggest that water vapor in the bottom of the basin during mornings and its advection by the valley wind strongly influences convective initiation in Bandung. © 2017, Meteorological Society of Japan.


Tsuda T.,Kyoto University | Lin X.,Kyoto University | Lin X.,KDDI | Hayashi H.,Kyoto University | Noersomadi,National Institute of Aeronautics and Space LAPAN
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques | Year: 2011

GPS radio occultation (RO) is characterized by high accuracy and excellent height resolution, which has great advantages in analyzing atmospheric structures including small-scale vertical fluctuations. The vertical resolution of the geometrical optics (GO) method in the stratosphere is about 1.5 km due to Fresnel radius limitations, but full spectrum inversion (FSI) can provide superior resolutions. We applied FSI to COSMIC GPS-RO profiles from ground level up to 30 km altitude, although basic retrieval at UCAR/CDAAC sets the sewing height from GO to FSI below the tropopause. We validated FSI temperature profiles with routine high-resolution radiosonde data in Malaysia and North America collected within 400 km and about 30 min of the GPS RO events. The average discrepancy at 10-30 km altitude was less than 0.5 K, and the bias was equivalent with the GO results. Using the FSI results, we analyzed the vertical wave number spectrum of normalized temperature fluctuations in the stratosphere at 20-30 km altitude, which exhibits good consistency with the model spectra of saturated gravity waves. We investigated the white noise floor that tends to appear at high wave numbers, and the substantial vertical resolution of the FSI method was estimated as about 100-200 m in the lower stratosphere. We also examined a criterion for the upper limit of the FSI profiles, beyond which bending angle perturbations due to system noises, etc., could exceed atmospheric excess phase fluctuations. We found that the FSI profiles can be used up to about 28 km in studies of temperature fluctuations with vertical wave lengths as short as 0.5 km. © 2011 Author(s).


Budhiman S.,University of Twente | Budhiman S.,National Institute of Aeronautics and Space LAPAN | Suhyb Salama M.,University of Twente | Suhyb Salama M.,Netherlands Institute of Ecology | And 2 more authors.
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing | Year: 2012

The development of an operational water quality monitoring method based on remote sensing data requires information on the apparent and inherent optical properties of water (AOP and IOP respectively). This study was performed to determine the apparent and inherent optical properties of coastal waters of the Mahakam Delta, Kalimantan, Indonesia. Inherent optical properties (IOPs) were derived from above-water radiometric measurements and ocean color model inversion. Retrieved IOPs and measured concentrations show good agreement both for total suspended matter (TSM) and chlorophyll a (Chl a) (R 2=0.72 and 0.80 respectively). The linear relationship between the retrieved IOPs and the measured concentrations was then used to estimate the specific inherent optical properties (SIOPs) using the basic equation of the Lambert-Beer law. The specific backscattering coefficient of TSM (bb,TSM*(550)) was found to be 0.0087m 2g -1, and the specific absorption coefficient of Chl a (aChl*(440)) was found to be 0.023m 2g -1 in the Mahakam Delta. The estimated values of SIOP for TSM and Chl a could be considered spatially constant for the Mahakam Delta, and resulted in reliable estimates of TSM and Chl a concentrations (R 2=0.84 and 0.85 respectively). The specific backscattering coefficient of TSM found in this study is similar to that of the Barito Estuary (in the southern part of Kalimantan) but lower than that of the Berau Estuary (in the northern part of Kalimantan), whereas the specific backscattering coefficient of Chl a is similar to that found in the Berau Estuary. This study contributes to the development of an operational method based on remote sensing data to map water constituent concentrations in the Mahakam Delta, as well as to enrich the information about the optical properties of Indonesian waters. © 2012 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).


Roza W.,National Institute of Aeronautics and Space LAPAN | El Amin D.,National Institute of Aeronautics and Space LAPAN | Nasser E.N.,Institute of Space Technology
Proceeding - ICARES 2014: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Aerospace Electronics and Remote Sensing Technology | Year: 2014

In order to transmit large amount of various payload data with the limited capacity channel, satellite requires payload data handling system. This paper presents the design and implementation of payload data handling for microsatellite based on FPGA Altera Cyclone IV EP4CE115F29C7. The proposed payload data handling design was divided into two main modules, CCSDS packet module and Reed-Solomon encoder module. Both modules were based on Packet Telemetry CCSDS recommendation. We proposed to use Reed-Solomon (223,255,16) interleave 5 for the outer code. Then followed by pseudo-random sequence and attached sync marker. The functional and performance test result shows and verify the functionality of Payload data handling FPGA implementation. The time required for generating 1 Frame was 54.68 ms for 25 Mbps. In order to synchronize the frame delay transition it requires 89 bytes dummy data. The proposed design uses 1627 total logic element and 92160 bit memory. © 2014 IEEE.


Tabata Y.,Kyoto University | Hashiguchi H.,Kyoto University | Yamamoto M.K.,Kyoto University | Yamamoto M.,Kyoto University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics | Year: 2011

Variations in the diurnal precipitation cycle over equatorial Indonesia was investigated using 1.3-GHz wind profiling radars (WPRs) and rain gauges installed at Pontianak (109.37°E, 0.00°S), Manado (124.92°E, 1.55°N), and Biak (136.10°E, 1.18°S). The horizontal scale of the landmass around Pontianak is more than 100. km, while those of Manado and Biak are 10-100. km. At all three WPR sites, peak rain rate was detected during 1300-1500 local time (LT) by rain gauges. WPR observations showed that deep convective clouds were predominant during that period. There was a clear difference in the afternoon-to-evening precipitation among the three WPR sites. At Pontianak, the afternoon-to-evening precipitation has the characteristics of a mesoscale convective system (MCS). Stratiform precipitation after the peak deep convective rain rate was predominant, and the transition from convective precipitation to stratiform precipitation was clearly apparent during 1500-2000LT. Black body brightness temperature (Tbb) observed by MTSAT-1R satellite also indicated that the precipitation clouds had enough horizontal scale to be well organized as an MCS. At Manado and Biak, the peak rain rate in the early afternoon was characterized by a short period (1-2h), and the precipitation after the convective precipitation was not clear. Tbb data showed that the convective precipitation had a horizontal scale of 10-100km. The difference of precipitation features among the three WPR sites is considered to be caused by the difference of horizontal scales of the respective landmasses. The diurnal precipitation cycle was also investigated using 11 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. A 3G68 product with a horizontal resolution of 0.5° could not resolve peak rain rate in the early afternoon at Manado and Biak, where convective clouds developed with the 10-100. km horizontal scale. Surface rain data with a horizontal resolution of 0.1° were produced using the TRMM precipitation radar (PR) 2A25 product. This high-horizontal-resolution data set successfully detected the peak convective rain rate in the early afternoon at Manado and Biak. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Tabata Y.,Kyoto University | Hashiguchi H.,Kyoto University | Yamamoto M.K.,Kyoto University | Yamamoto M.,Kyoto University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics | Year: 2011

Horizontal wind data over Indonesia obtained by global reanalyses were compared with wind-profiling radar (WPR) observations in Indonesia at Kototabang (100.32°E, 0.20°S), Pontianak (109.37°E, 0.00°S), Manado (124.92°E, 1.55°N), and Biak (136.10°E, 1.18°S). The global-reanalysis data were 850- and 700-hPa horizontal winds for 2007 and 2008. These data were obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) Reanalysis (R1), the NCEP-Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP-II) Reanalysis (R2), the Japan Meteorological Agency Climate Data Assimilation System (JCDAS), the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis-interim (ERA-Interim). All the four reanalyses showed good agreement with the WPR zonal and meridional wind data (correlation coefficient >0.7 in most cases). Of the four reanalyses, ERA-Interim had the highest correlation coefficient with the WPR winds in both zonal (correlation coefficient 0.89) and meridional (0.77) components. It can be explained that ERA-Interim used four-dimensional variational analysis (4D-var) for data assimilation, whereas the other reanalyses used three-dimensional variational analysis (3D-var). The zonal winds of the four reanalyses had smaller (78-87%) amplitudes than did the WPR winds. Further comparison of the zonal winds between the global reanalyses and operational radiosondes indicated that global-reanalysis zonal winds with smaller amplitudes are common in and around Indonesia. © 2010.


Noviar H.,National Institute of Aeronautics and Space LAPAN
34th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing 2013, ACRS 2013 | Year: 2013

Damage to mangrove forests in Bengkalis lately getting worse. This is due to the high forest exploitation of mangrove wood as a raw material for industry panglung. Mangrove forests need to be inventoried in this region because of its presence is essential for the survival and sustainability of biological resources and non-biological. The Remote sensing data can be used to detect the land cover in the earth surface. Based on this, researcher tried to inventory the mangrove forest in terms of location, extent and density using remote sensing data Landsat with consideration of spatial and spectral resolution for identification and monitoring of natural resources. The method is used are Landsat data interpretation visually and digitally using combination of the existing canal. These results are expected can be used as information and input for related parties such as the Ministry of Environment, local authorities and Riau Government in determining policies to preserve this area. The inventory result obtained the total area of Mangrove forests in District Bengkalis (before expansion) in 2010 was 44.173,8 hectares, while the most extensive mangrove forest is Sub-District Rupat (17.347,1 hectares or 39.3% of total area in Mangrove forest in Bengkalis). Canopy density of Mangrove forest which very sparse and sparse (indications of Mangrove forest damage) in Subdistrict Rupat totaling 404.6 Ha (2.3%) of the Mangrove total area in this sub-district. Copyright © (2013) by the Asian Association on Remote Sensing.


Noviar H.,National Institute of Aeronautics and Space LAPAN
34th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing 2013, ACRS 2013 | Year: 2013

There are various data and algorithms that used to detect hotspot include NOAA-AVHRR data using LAPAN algorithms, MODIS data using NASA algorithms and ATSR data using ESA algorithms. The study result are comparison of hotspot detection algorithm and the hotspot detection results from the three sources of data (NOAA-AVHRR, MODIS WEBFIRE and ATSR) with 3 algorithms (LAPAN, NASA and ESA). Hotspot data dated October 3, 2006 obtained number of hotspot is same in South Sumatra Province from NOAA (NOAA-18) and ATSR data, i.e 140 points. Ogan Komering Hilir district as well and it's amount 80 point. Spatially, hotspot location from 3 data source (NOAA-18, ATSR and MODIS WEBFIRE) obtained same location, i.e cluster in the north eastern part of Ogan Komering district. Similarly in other districts in South Sumatra Province as Muaraenim, Musi Banyuasin and Musi Rawas district are also obtained same number of hotspot from 2 data sources (NOAA-18 and ATSR) on that date. The searching from another hotspot data obtained data dated October 1, 2006 in Kalimantan, especially in Central Kalimantan Province obtained number of hotspot almost the same from 2 data source (NOAA 1103 points, MODIS WEBFIRE 1156 points). From this study, it can be concluded that there are difference and similarities of number of hotspot daily from 3 data sources among other caused by differences in record time, clouds covering hotspots during recording and threshold values used. Copyright © (2013) by the Asian Association on Remote Sensing.

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