National Institute of Advanced Studies

Bangalore, India

National Institute of Advanced Studies

Bangalore, India
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Chandrashekar S.,National Institute of Advanced Studies
Astropolitics | Year: 2016

India must accept and deal with the reality that conflicts and wars in today’s world will be driven by the increasing interdependence between conventional, nuclear, and space war. The role of space-based command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) assets, complemented by other ground-and space-based space situational awareness (SSA) components, is critical for deciding on the new national strategy for waging war and for the deterrence of war. Increasingly, the U.S.-China space dynamic determines the evolution of the global space order. To translate these challenges into an operational capability, India requires, at a minimum, a four-fold increase in capability to launch satellites into various orbits every year. The integration of C4ISR and SSA capabilities into a seamless network that facilitates real-time action is the key organizational and institutional component of the new strategy. More than the technology initiatives, the implementation of this strategy necessitates a clear aspiration on the part of India that it does have an important role to play on the global stage, and that it will carry out the organizational and institutional reforms for defending its national interests and national security. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

Thakur H.,National Institute of Advanced Studies
Transactions of the Institute of Indian Geographers | Year: 2017

Karnataka has given extremely rich evidence for archaeological remains. The landscape of Karnataka seems to have been suitable for human habitation from the pre-historic through the proto-historic and historic periodos evidence for all the three phases is available almost all over the state. In this paper the geographical landscape of Karnataka has been discussed. The drainage of Karnataka is based on three notable rivers - Krishna on the north, the Kaveri on the south, the two Pennars (North Pennar and South Pennar) and the Palar on the east. The drainage of Karnataka is mentioned as settlements from the neolithic period onwards are located close to the rivers and rivers played a crucial role in sustaining human habitation. Similarly, Karnataka enjoys the benefit of numerous mountain ranges. Mountains are a source of economically viable rocks and minerals. There is evidence for the exploitation of metals and minerals since prehistoric period. Other important geographical aspects which may have had a bearing on the historical development such as soil types, flora and fauna, climate, etc. have been examined.

Nagappa R.,National Institute of Advanced Studies
Astropolitics | Year: 2016

The Indian space program is a spacefaring success story with demonstrated capability in the design and building of application and scientific satellites, and the means to launch them into desired orbits. The end-to-end mission planning and execution capability comes with a high emphasis on self-reliance. Sounding rockets and small satellite launch vehicles provided the initial experience base for India. This experience was consolidated and applied to realize larger satellite launch vehicles. While many of the launch vehicle technologies were indigenously developed, the foreign acquisition of liquid propulsion technologies did help in catalyzing the development efforts. In this case, launch vehicle concept studies showed the inevitability of using a cryogenic upper stage for geosynchronous Earth orbit missions, which proved to be difficult technically and encountered substantial delays, given the geopolitical situation. However, launch capability matured from development to operational phases, and today, India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle are in a position to meet both domestic and international market demands. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

Cisneros P.,National Institute of Advanced Studies | Christel L.,National University of San Martín of Argentina
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014

Several evaluations of contemporary left-of-center governments in South America suggest that natural resource governance in the region has become post-neoliberal only in the sense that States augmented the appropriation and distribution of rent motivated by sustained international demand for commodities. The political ecologies of mining remain characterized by increasing demands for more democratic decision-making as occurred in the 1990s. In order to explain this continuity, most studies focus on the interactions between States and civil societies. They state that a pragmatic stance on resource governance regards rent capture and distribution over the development of mechanisms for inclusion in decision-making. These assessments give only a partial account of the interactions involved in such dynamic, they underestimate corporate behavior as a central component of emerging forms of governance. We argue that companies were central actors of the production of mining conflicts during the 1990s and still exert an important degree of influence in resource governance through corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies. Our findings show that since the neoliberal legal and administrative reforms of the early 1990s, Argentinian and Ecuadorian governments have supported a system of mining governance that regards the economic interests over the demands for more democratic decision-making. Nevertheless, even after recognizing the deleterious effects of neoliberal CSR practiced by companies, left-of-center governments have not been able to steer corporate behavior in a new direction. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rao N.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences | Menon S.,National Institute of Advanced studies
International Review of Psychiatry | Year: 2016

Preliminary evidence suggests efficacy of yoga as add-on treatment for schizophrenia, but the underlying mechanism by which yoga improves the symptoms of schizophrenia is not completely understood. Yoga improves self-reflection in healthy individuals, and self-reflection abnormalities are typically seen in schizophrenia. However, whether yoga treatment improves impairments in self-reflection typically seen in patients with schizophrenia is not examined. This paper discusses the potential mechanism of yoga in the treatment of schizophrenia and proposes a testable hypothesis for further empirical studies. It is proposed that self-reflection abnormalities in schizophrenia improve with yoga and the neurobiological changes associated with this can be examined using empirical behavioural measures and neuroimaging measures such as magnetic resonance imaging. © 2016 Institute of Psychiatry.

Ahuja D.R.,National Institute of Advanced Studies | SenGupta D.P.,National Institute of Advanced Studies
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

Many countries have experimented with daylight saving time (DST) to save energy and to align human activities more closely to the daily cycle of light and darkness. Using a novel methodology, we estimate the year-round energy savings to be obtained from advancing Indian Standard Time (IST), from the introduction of DST, and from dividing the country into two time zones. We find that the option of advancing IST consistently saves more energy than the corresponding DST option, which in turn saves more energy than the corresponding time zones option. This is because the energy benefits of advancing IST accrue for the entire year throughout the country, whereas the benefits of DST are confined to summer months and the benefits of two time zones are largely in the lower energy consuming eastern region. We recommend advancing IST by half-hour to being six hours ahead of UTC. This confers the advantages of DST and time zones without their disadvantages and is forecast to save more than 2. billion. kWh of electricity every year during evening peaks that are difficult to supply. While these results are India-specific, similar exercises would be useful to many other countries. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Srinivasan S.,National Institute of Advanced Studies
JOM | Year: 2016

This review explores the great copper alloy image casting traditions of southern India from archaeometallurgical and ethnometallurgical perspectives. The usefulness of lead isotope ratio and compositional analysis in the finger-printing and art historical study of more than 130 early historic, Pallava, Chola, later Chola, and Vijayanagara sculptures (fifth–eighteenth centuries) is highlighted, including Nataraja, Buddha, Parvati, and Rama images made of copper, leaded bronze, brass, and gilt copper. Image casting traditions at Swamimalai in Tamil Nadu are compared with artistic treatises and with the technical examination of medieval bronzes, throwing light on continuities and changes in foundry practices. Western Indian sources could be pinpointed for a couple of medieval images from lead isotope analysis. Slag and archaeometallurgical investigations suggest the exploitation of some copper and lead-silver sources in the Andhra and Karnataka regions in the early historic Satavahana period and point to probable copper sources for the medieval images in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh. The general lower iron content in southern Indian bronzes perhaps renders the proximal copper–magnetite reserves of Seruvila in Sri Lanka as a less likely source. Given the lack of lead deposits in Sri Lanka, however, the match of the lead isotope signatures of a well-known Ceylonese Buddhist Tara in British Museum with a Buddha image from Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu may underscore ties between the island nation and the southern Indian Tamil regions. © 2016 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society

Choragudi S.,National Institute of Advanced Studies
International Journal of Global Energy Issues | Year: 2016

Present study, in the wake of India revamping its green energy sector, revisits long established rural-based energy technology domestic biogas plants (DBPs). To this end, we present its status-policy design, nature of diffusion and factors that determine their adoption. While more than 60% of the biogas plant potential are still left untapped, their installation declined steadily across all the states in the last decade. While only three of 1000 rural households use DBPs, half of them find it inadequate. Increment in the financial assistance to the state, presence of educated woman in the household, and ideal physical conditions enhance the households' chances to adopt DBP. On the contrary, improvement in the status of alternative energy sources (firewood), belonging to backward social community and being a poor household reduces the odds to adopt biogas plants. Characterised by fractured support system, biogas plants still has long way to go before emerging as reliable and sustainable source of energy in rural India. © Copyright 2016 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Kumara H.N.,National Institute of Advanced Studies | Kumar S.,KUMARAGIRI | Singh M.,University of Mysore
Primates | Year: 2010

We assessed the distribution and conservation status of bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata), rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) in the state of Karnataka, India. Karnataka is situated in southwest India with an area of 191,791 km 2. A total of 9697 km of vehicular survey was made from November 2001 to July 2004. We also visited 107 temples/tourist spots to determine the presence of primates. Bonnet macaques and Hanuman langurs were widely distributed, whereas rhesus macaques were not found in the state. However, bonnet macaques were absent in a few districts in the northern plains and Hanuman langurs were absent in some districts of the southern plains. A total of 205 groups of bonnet macaques and 139 groups of Hanuman langurs were sighted. The relative encounter rate of both species differed across biogeographic zones. Bonnet macaques were largely encountered in the Western Ghats and the Southern Plateau whereas Hanuman langurs were abundant in the Western Ghats and Northern Plains. We found that bonnet macaques have been eliminated from about 48% temples/tourist spots where they occurred in the recent past. The Hanuman langur population of Dharwar-Haliyal Road was assessed during April 2003, and we found that the present population size was about 38% of a previous survey in 1961. Habitat change, hunting/trapping and translocation were the major factors causing a decline in the langur population. © 2009 Japan Monkey Centre and Springer.

Nalini N.S.,National Institute of Advanced Studies
International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development | Year: 2016

Urban metabolism as a framework has enabled understanding the interactions between humans, natural, and built environment. The concept is multidisciplinary and urban metabolism models have been used in identifying certain issues of urban planning. Apart from sociopolitical and economic aspects, metabolism also has spatial dimension. The spatial dimension is reflected in the metabolic processes which is inherent in the problems of uneven socioecological metabolisms that persist in the production of urban spaces. Urban planning developed as a discipline for balanced spatial development of urban metabolic processes. For sustainable development of the city, it is necessary for urban planning to follow metabolic processes but in reality this need not always be the case. It is possible for planning and urban metabolism to be spatially inconsistent. The results presented in this paper show the costs of such a divergence in the water supply system of Bengaluru city. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

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