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Swapna N.,National Center for Biological science | Swapna N.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Radhakrishna S.,National Institute of Advanced Studies | Gupta A.K.,Government of Tripura | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2010

In this study we estimated the extent of exudativory in Nycticebus bengalensis and examined whether exudates can be considered as fallback foods. This study was carried out in Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary, northeastern India, in winter (December-February) and summer (March and April). We estimated time-activity budget using instantaneous sampling and used continuous focal animal sampling to record all instances and durations of feeding, over a total of 177 hr. Feeding accounted for 22.372.2% of the activity budget, with no seasonal difference. Bengal slow lorises fed on exudates, nectar, fruit, bark, invertebrates and avian eggs. In addition to scraping they also obtained exudates by gouging holes into the bark of trees. In winter, lorises almost exclusively fed on exudates (94.3% of winter feeding time). In summer, exudates (67.3%) and nectar from one species (22.3%) dominated the diet. This study identifies the Bengal slow loris as the most exudativorous loris. Exudates rather than being a staple fallback food, seem to be a preferred, patchily distributed and common food in the diet of the Bengal slow loris. Exudativory in this species is characterized by high selectivity among species and seasonal variation, which may be related to variations in productivity of exudates and their chemical composition. An understanding of these factors is necessary for predicting the response of this species to human disturbance such as logging. This study also underscores the importance of protecting some of the common species such as Terminalia belerica on which the loris feeds during periods of scarcity. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Srinivasan S.,National Institute of Advanced Studies
JOM | Year: 2016

This review explores the great copper alloy image casting traditions of southern India from archaeometallurgical and ethnometallurgical perspectives. The usefulness of lead isotope ratio and compositional analysis in the finger-printing and art historical study of more than 130 early historic, Pallava, Chola, later Chola, and Vijayanagara sculptures (fifth–eighteenth centuries) is highlighted, including Nataraja, Buddha, Parvati, and Rama images made of copper, leaded bronze, brass, and gilt copper. Image casting traditions at Swamimalai in Tamil Nadu are compared with artistic treatises and with the technical examination of medieval bronzes, throwing light on continuities and changes in foundry practices. Western Indian sources could be pinpointed for a couple of medieval images from lead isotope analysis. Slag and archaeometallurgical investigations suggest the exploitation of some copper and lead-silver sources in the Andhra and Karnataka regions in the early historic Satavahana period and point to probable copper sources for the medieval images in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh. The general lower iron content in southern Indian bronzes perhaps renders the proximal copper–magnetite reserves of Seruvila in Sri Lanka as a less likely source. Given the lack of lead deposits in Sri Lanka, however, the match of the lead isotope signatures of a well-known Ceylonese Buddhist Tara in British Museum with a Buddha image from Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu may underscore ties between the island nation and the southern Indian Tamil regions. © 2016 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society Source


Raj B.,National Institute of Advanced Studies | Mudali U.K.,Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research
Australasian Corrosion Association Annual Conference: Corrosion and Prevention 2015, ACA 2015 | Year: 2015

Design, materials and manufacturing coupled with life cycle asset management play key roles in development and deployment of technologies for the better quality of life in the society. Towards ever increasing temperature, pressure and concentration of chemicals in the industrial processes for achieving higher efficiency; newer and better materials with higher performance are being demanded. At Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, for more than four decades, extensive R&D has been pursued for developing advanced materials and coatings technologies, corrosion testing, evaluation and monitoring techniques, non-destructive testing, inspection and evaluation for the purpose in a cohesive and transdisciplinary mode. The authors advocate pursuit of corrosion mitigation thorough understanding of complete spectrum of basic science to testing, evaluation, monitoring, modeling, quality, human resources and best practices to have confidence in authentic and substantial paradigm changes in corrosion mitigation and management. In this paper, understanding of corrosion with deep and clear insights towards applications for various engineering components in several critical environments (i.e., liquid sodium, steam-water system, sea water, marine atmosphere, nitric acid, molten chloride, nuclear high level waste storage, etc.) are illustrated. An overview of the corrosion mitigation with focus on development of advanced materials of nitrogen alloyed stainless steel, nitric acid grade stainless steel, next generation Cr-Mo steels, titanium and its alloys, zirconium and its alloys, and coating technologies (i.e., thermal barrier, mixed oxide, superhydrophobic, self-healing repair, anti-fouling, etc.), and monitoring technologies for highly corrosive environments, towards development of Fast Spectrum Reactors (FSRs) and their associated fuel cycle technologies are highlighted. Approaches and methodologies to understand and implement corrosion management in other areas such as oil, gas, power, steel, defense, space, etc. have been prominent outcomes with success based on the present work. Most of the times, solutions were provided for unsolved, first of the kind challenges, posed to the authors and their colleagues. The authors are of the view that the corrosion processes can be understood and mitigated by pursuing sustained comprehensive R&D for realizing solutions to challenging applications. Source


Raj B.,National Institute of Advanced Studies | Mudali U.K.,Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research
Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy | Year: 2015

The performance and integrity of structural and functional materials are key issues in the safety and competitiveness of current and future nuclear fission reactors being developed for sustainable nuclear energy applications. The challenges towards development of nuclear structural materials arise due to the demanding hostile environments with respect to radiation, temperature, stress, etc., and requirements of total reliability and high performance over the long service life (say 60 years). A successful materials science research programme in nuclear industry has to take into account these challenges to improve the performance of materials and components in the emerging scenario of extending life of existing plants and realizing advanced reactors. In this study, material challenges associated with water reactors and fast breeder reactors (FBR) with focus on short-term and long-term strategies for materials development are considered. The materials in the existing and proposed future nuclear fission reactors are summarized along with a description of major material degradation mechanisms in different environments. The priority in the nuclear industry is to extend the life of reactors with robust safety features and sufficient cost-effectiveness, beyond forty to sixty years and from sixty to even one hundred years. The importance of modelling and developing predictive tools to estimate materials behaviour for effective computing of lifetime of nuclear reactor components is fast developing to cut down cost and time and also to enhance safety and confidence in existing and new systems. The future FBR technology relies heavily on advanced waste management and effective proliferation resistance. We review advanced reactor concepts of Generation IV forum and the new materials and technologies. Nuclear energy is not the right option for every country. Careful examination of the energy basket and commitment over a long period with effective mechanisms of safety governance is the key to make a decision to harness large amounts of nuclear energy. China, France, India, Russia, USA,UK, etc. are extremely committed to use large amounts of nuclear energy. Japan after the Fukushima accident, faces a challenge of public acceptance though the country has deep and rich expertise in nuclear technology and it is advantageous to produce low carbon power, on a sustained competitive basis from nuclear energy. © Printed in India. Source


Cisneros P.,National Institute of Advanced Studies | Christel L.,National University of San Martin of Argentina
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014

Several evaluations of contemporary left-of-center governments in South America suggest that natural resource governance in the region has become post-neoliberal only in the sense that States augmented the appropriation and distribution of rent motivated by sustained international demand for commodities. The political ecologies of mining remain characterized by increasing demands for more democratic decision-making as occurred in the 1990s. In order to explain this continuity, most studies focus on the interactions between States and civil societies. They state that a pragmatic stance on resource governance regards rent capture and distribution over the development of mechanisms for inclusion in decision-making. These assessments give only a partial account of the interactions involved in such dynamic, they underestimate corporate behavior as a central component of emerging forms of governance. We argue that companies were central actors of the production of mining conflicts during the 1990s and still exert an important degree of influence in resource governance through corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies. Our findings show that since the neoliberal legal and administrative reforms of the early 1990s, Argentinian and Ecuadorian governments have supported a system of mining governance that regards the economic interests over the demands for more democratic decision-making. Nevertheless, even after recognizing the deleterious effects of neoliberal CSR practiced by companies, left-of-center governments have not been able to steer corporate behavior in a new direction. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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