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Cisneros P.,National Institute of Advanced Studies | Christel L.,National University of San Martín of Argentina
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014

Several evaluations of contemporary left-of-center governments in South America suggest that natural resource governance in the region has become post-neoliberal only in the sense that States augmented the appropriation and distribution of rent motivated by sustained international demand for commodities. The political ecologies of mining remain characterized by increasing demands for more democratic decision-making as occurred in the 1990s. In order to explain this continuity, most studies focus on the interactions between States and civil societies. They state that a pragmatic stance on resource governance regards rent capture and distribution over the development of mechanisms for inclusion in decision-making. These assessments give only a partial account of the interactions involved in such dynamic, they underestimate corporate behavior as a central component of emerging forms of governance. We argue that companies were central actors of the production of mining conflicts during the 1990s and still exert an important degree of influence in resource governance through corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies. Our findings show that since the neoliberal legal and administrative reforms of the early 1990s, Argentinian and Ecuadorian governments have supported a system of mining governance that regards the economic interests over the demands for more democratic decision-making. Nevertheless, even after recognizing the deleterious effects of neoliberal CSR practiced by companies, left-of-center governments have not been able to steer corporate behavior in a new direction. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Rao N.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences | Menon S.,National Institute of Advanced studies
International Review of Psychiatry | Year: 2016

Preliminary evidence suggests efficacy of yoga as add-on treatment for schizophrenia, but the underlying mechanism by which yoga improves the symptoms of schizophrenia is not completely understood. Yoga improves self-reflection in healthy individuals, and self-reflection abnormalities are typically seen in schizophrenia. However, whether yoga treatment improves impairments in self-reflection typically seen in patients with schizophrenia is not examined. This paper discusses the potential mechanism of yoga in the treatment of schizophrenia and proposes a testable hypothesis for further empirical studies. It is proposed that self-reflection abnormalities in schizophrenia improve with yoga and the neurobiological changes associated with this can be examined using empirical behavioural measures and neuroimaging measures such as magnetic resonance imaging. © 2016 Institute of Psychiatry.


Ahuja D.R.,National Institute of Advanced Studies | SenGupta D.P.,National Institute of Advanced Studies
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

Many countries have experimented with daylight saving time (DST) to save energy and to align human activities more closely to the daily cycle of light and darkness. Using a novel methodology, we estimate the year-round energy savings to be obtained from advancing Indian Standard Time (IST), from the introduction of DST, and from dividing the country into two time zones. We find that the option of advancing IST consistently saves more energy than the corresponding DST option, which in turn saves more energy than the corresponding time zones option. This is because the energy benefits of advancing IST accrue for the entire year throughout the country, whereas the benefits of DST are confined to summer months and the benefits of two time zones are largely in the lower energy consuming eastern region. We recommend advancing IST by half-hour to being six hours ahead of UTC. This confers the advantages of DST and time zones without their disadvantages and is forecast to save more than 2. billion. kWh of electricity every year during evening peaks that are difficult to supply. While these results are India-specific, similar exercises would be useful to many other countries. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Srinivasan S.,National Institute of Advanced Studies
JOM | Year: 2016

This review explores the great copper alloy image casting traditions of southern India from archaeometallurgical and ethnometallurgical perspectives. The usefulness of lead isotope ratio and compositional analysis in the finger-printing and art historical study of more than 130 early historic, Pallava, Chola, later Chola, and Vijayanagara sculptures (fifth–eighteenth centuries) is highlighted, including Nataraja, Buddha, Parvati, and Rama images made of copper, leaded bronze, brass, and gilt copper. Image casting traditions at Swamimalai in Tamil Nadu are compared with artistic treatises and with the technical examination of medieval bronzes, throwing light on continuities and changes in foundry practices. Western Indian sources could be pinpointed for a couple of medieval images from lead isotope analysis. Slag and archaeometallurgical investigations suggest the exploitation of some copper and lead-silver sources in the Andhra and Karnataka regions in the early historic Satavahana period and point to probable copper sources for the medieval images in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh. The general lower iron content in southern Indian bronzes perhaps renders the proximal copper–magnetite reserves of Seruvila in Sri Lanka as a less likely source. Given the lack of lead deposits in Sri Lanka, however, the match of the lead isotope signatures of a well-known Ceylonese Buddhist Tara in British Museum with a Buddha image from Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu may underscore ties between the island nation and the southern Indian Tamil regions. © 2016 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society


Raj B.,National Institute of Advanced Studies | Mudali U.K.,Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research
Australasian Corrosion Association Annual Conference: Corrosion and Prevention 2015, ACA 2015 | Year: 2015

Design, materials and manufacturing coupled with life cycle asset management play key roles in development and deployment of technologies for the better quality of life in the society. Towards ever increasing temperature, pressure and concentration of chemicals in the industrial processes for achieving higher efficiency; newer and better materials with higher performance are being demanded. At Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, for more than four decades, extensive R&D has been pursued for developing advanced materials and coatings technologies, corrosion testing, evaluation and monitoring techniques, non-destructive testing, inspection and evaluation for the purpose in a cohesive and transdisciplinary mode. The authors advocate pursuit of corrosion mitigation thorough understanding of complete spectrum of basic science to testing, evaluation, monitoring, modeling, quality, human resources and best practices to have confidence in authentic and substantial paradigm changes in corrosion mitigation and management. In this paper, understanding of corrosion with deep and clear insights towards applications for various engineering components in several critical environments (i.e., liquid sodium, steam-water system, sea water, marine atmosphere, nitric acid, molten chloride, nuclear high level waste storage, etc.) are illustrated. An overview of the corrosion mitigation with focus on development of advanced materials of nitrogen alloyed stainless steel, nitric acid grade stainless steel, next generation Cr-Mo steels, titanium and its alloys, zirconium and its alloys, and coating technologies (i.e., thermal barrier, mixed oxide, superhydrophobic, self-healing repair, anti-fouling, etc.), and monitoring technologies for highly corrosive environments, towards development of Fast Spectrum Reactors (FSRs) and their associated fuel cycle technologies are highlighted. Approaches and methodologies to understand and implement corrosion management in other areas such as oil, gas, power, steel, defense, space, etc. have been prominent outcomes with success based on the present work. Most of the times, solutions were provided for unsolved, first of the kind challenges, posed to the authors and their colleagues. The authors are of the view that the corrosion processes can be understood and mitigated by pursuing sustained comprehensive R&D for realizing solutions to challenging applications.


Raj B.,National Institute of Advanced Studies | Chellapandi P.,Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam Ltd | Mudali U.K.,Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research
Procedia CIRP | Year: 2015

The increasing demands on reliability, safety and economics of nuclear systems translate to challenges in realization of high-performance components for operation at steady state, transient and severe accident conditions. The authors, based on their four decades of research, development and deployment experiences, present a review of findings relating to life cycle management of critical structural components in Indian thermal, fast reactors and reprocessing facilities. The challenges relating to specific structural components are described with highlights of materials to improve life for prolonged service with safety and economics. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.


Haricharan S.,National Institute of Advanced Studies | Keerthi N.,National Institute of Advanced Studies
World Archaeology | Year: 2014

The Iron Age-Early Historic landscape of southern India has been subject to scholarly study and scrutiny for over a century now. There is much variation in the chronology, typology and understanding of sites from this period. This paper looks at the habitation, burials and habitation-cum-burial sites of the Iron Age-Early Historic period, from the northern part of Tamilnadu, India. Historians have also used the Sangam texts of classical Tamil, which are believed to be contemporaneous with the archaeological sites considered, to understand the society and culture of this period. However, most of the previous literary and archaeological researches have progressed parallel to each other, thereby resulting in different perspectives for the same research questions. This paper uses the excavated sites from northern Tamilnadu as a case study to explore the possibility of combining archaeological and literary-historical approaches, while examining the advantages and limitations of each approach. © 2014, Taylor & Francis.


Choragudi S.,National Institute of Advanced Studies
International Journal of Global Energy Issues | Year: 2016

Present study, in the wake of India revamping its green energy sector, revisits long established rural-based energy technology domestic biogas plants (DBPs). To this end, we present its status-policy design, nature of diffusion and factors that determine their adoption. While more than 60% of the biogas plant potential are still left untapped, their installation declined steadily across all the states in the last decade. While only three of 1000 rural households use DBPs, half of them find it inadequate. Increment in the financial assistance to the state, presence of educated woman in the household, and ideal physical conditions enhance the households' chances to adopt DBP. On the contrary, improvement in the status of alternative energy sources (firewood), belonging to backward social community and being a poor household reduces the odds to adopt biogas plants. Characterised by fractured support system, biogas plants still has long way to go before emerging as reliable and sustainable source of energy in rural India. © Copyright 2016 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Kumara H.N.,National Institute of Advanced Studies | Kumar S.,KUMARAGIRI | Singh M.,University of Mysore
Primates | Year: 2010

We assessed the distribution and conservation status of bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata), rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) in the state of Karnataka, India. Karnataka is situated in southwest India with an area of 191,791 km 2. A total of 9697 km of vehicular survey was made from November 2001 to July 2004. We also visited 107 temples/tourist spots to determine the presence of primates. Bonnet macaques and Hanuman langurs were widely distributed, whereas rhesus macaques were not found in the state. However, bonnet macaques were absent in a few districts in the northern plains and Hanuman langurs were absent in some districts of the southern plains. A total of 205 groups of bonnet macaques and 139 groups of Hanuman langurs were sighted. The relative encounter rate of both species differed across biogeographic zones. Bonnet macaques were largely encountered in the Western Ghats and the Southern Plateau whereas Hanuman langurs were abundant in the Western Ghats and Northern Plains. We found that bonnet macaques have been eliminated from about 48% temples/tourist spots where they occurred in the recent past. The Hanuman langur population of Dharwar-Haliyal Road was assessed during April 2003, and we found that the present population size was about 38% of a previous survey in 1961. Habitat change, hunting/trapping and translocation were the major factors causing a decline in the langur population. © 2009 Japan Monkey Centre and Springer.


Nalini N.S.,National Institute of Advanced Studies
International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development | Year: 2016

Urban metabolism as a framework has enabled understanding the interactions between humans, natural, and built environment. The concept is multidisciplinary and urban metabolism models have been used in identifying certain issues of urban planning. Apart from sociopolitical and economic aspects, metabolism also has spatial dimension. The spatial dimension is reflected in the metabolic processes which is inherent in the problems of uneven socioecological metabolisms that persist in the production of urban spaces. Urban planning developed as a discipline for balanced spatial development of urban metabolic processes. For sustainable development of the city, it is necessary for urban planning to follow metabolic processes but in reality this need not always be the case. It is possible for planning and urban metabolism to be spatially inconsistent. The results presented in this paper show the costs of such a divergence in the water supply system of Bengaluru city. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

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